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  • Hibbett
  • For those who aren't familiar with rDNA and fungal systematics, several excellent reviews are available on fungi (Hibbett, 1992) and generally for eukaryotes (Hillis and Dixon, 1991). (duke.edu)
  • Moreover, monophyly of the Zygomycota remains controversial, and it was not included as a formal taxon in the 'AFTOL classification' of Fungi (Hibbett et al. (tolweb.org)
  • soil
  • 2014). Mobile elements and mitochondrial genome expansion in the soil fungus and potato pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-3. (duke.edu)
  • Zygomycota are arguably the most ecologically diverse group of fungi, functioning as saprophytes on substrates such as fruit, soil, and dung (Mucorales), as harmless inhabitants of arthropod guts (Harpellales), as plant mutualists forming ectomycorrhizae (Endogonales), and as pathogens of animals, plants, amoebae, and especially other fungi (all Dimargaritales and some Zoopagales are mycoparasites). (tolweb.org)
  • Consequently, some AM fungi are more strongly associated with local variations in the soil environment than with their host plant's distribution. (asm.org)
  • However, AM fungi produce an extensive extraradical mycelial network in soil and therefore will be subject to strong selection pressures from the abiotic soil environment. (asm.org)
  • pathogens
  • As parasites, ascomycetes account for most of the animal and plant pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii , responsible for pneumonia of humans with compromised immune systems and Ophiostoma ulmi , the Dutch elm disease fungus that is responsible for the demise of elm trees in North America and Europe (Agrios, 1988). (tolweb.org)
  • Genomics research on non-model plant pathogens: delivering novel insights into rust fungus biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Endophytic fungi are known to modulate their host's resistance against pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zoosporic
  • Coupled with studies on their functional ecology, we are moving closer to unraveling the role of zoosporic fungi in carbon cycling and the impact of climate change on zoosporic fungal populations. (asmscience.org)
  • ectomycorrhizal
  • 2016. Metatranscriptomic Study of Common and Host-Specific Patterns of Gene Expression between Pines and Their Symbiotic Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in the Genus Suillus . (duke.edu)
  • Large-scale studies that examine the responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi across biogeographic gradients are necessary to assess their role in mediating current and predicted future alterations in forest ecosystem processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lichens
  • It includes most of the fungi that combine with algae to form lichens, and the majority of fungi that lack morphological evidence of sexual reproduction. (tolweb.org)
  • analyses
  • Some analyses suggest the Basdiobolaceae are more closely related to certain chytrid fungi than to the Entomophthorales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • sequence
  • A new marker sequence for systematics of medically important fungi based on amino acid sequence of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the comparison of nucleic acid sequence, as well as nonsexual phenotypic characters, have permitted the integration of asexual fungi into the Ascomycota (Taylor, 1995). (tolweb.org)
  • fungal communities
  • Our results strongly suggest that direct environmental selection acting on AM fungi is a major factor regulating AM fungal communities and their phylogeographic patterns. (asm.org)
  • Phylogeny
  • A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). (nih.gov)
  • Biology
  • In this article, we review the contribution of large-scale -omics studies over the past 15 years to improve our understanding of the fundamental biology of powdery mildew fungi, their evolution, and the relationship with their hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yeasts
  • Primary fungal laryngitis is commonly attributable to yeasts such as Candida , and Cryptococcus or fungi are known to cause endemic mycoses like Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides, and Coccidioides . (springer.com)
  • Ascomycota
  • The Ascomycota, or sac fungi, is monophyletic and accounts for approximately 75% of all described fungi. (tolweb.org)
  • The body of Ascomycota is shared by other fungi and consists of a typical eukaryotic cell surrounded by a wall. (tolweb.org)
  • saprotrophs
  • While many Agaricales acquire sustenance by decomposing dead organic matter (as saprotrophs), others parasitize plants or other fungi, and a few capture or parasitize vertebrates or invertebrates. (tolweb.org)
  • Agaricomycotina
  • To obtain carbon nutrition, Agaricomycotina decompose dead organic matter or enter into diverse associations (both antagonistic and benign) with plants, animals, and other fungi. (tolweb.org)
  • poorly
  • In contrast, fungi are poorly characterized in Drosophila , with most studies focusing on taxonomy, ecology of yeast in the gut, and importance in the diet [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • enzymes
  • Fungi play a central role in biodegradation or decomposition and are producers of an array of extracellular enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. (mdpi.com)
  • U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • lineages
  • 2005) have shown that some non-gilled fungi, including reduced or cup-like (cyphelloid) forms and crustose or resupinate forms, share their evolutionary histories with numerous lineages of Agaricales, including some lineages that evolved in aquatic or marine environments (Binder et al. (tolweb.org)
  • Mycorrhizal associations with plants are present in many lineages of Agaricomycetes, including certain jelly fungi (Selosse et al. (tolweb.org)
  • primarily
  • Infections with fungi that cause powdery mildew disease result in a characteristic white fuzzy patina on the surface of aerial plant organs (primarily leaves and stems). (frontiersin.org)