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  • fungi
  • We are looking for individuals or research groups to clone and express purifed proteins from fungi into industrial host. (bio.net)
  • Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. (hindawi.com)
  • Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways are important stress-signalling modules found in all eukaryotes, including eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we show that three other MAPKK-like proteins (Mkk4/5/6) exist in Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogenic or non-entomopathogenic fungi but lack in yeasts and aspergilli, and elucidate how they function in the fungal insect pathogen. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • However, glomalin-related soil proteins (GRSP) have been identified using a monoclonal antibody (Mab32B11) raised against crushed AM fungi spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemistry of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is not yet fully understood, and the link between glomalin, GRSP, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is not yet clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of their significant roles in geological processes, "geomycology", has shown that fungi are involved with biomineralization, biodegradation, and metal-fungal interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studying fungi's roles in biomineralization, it has been found that fungi deposit minerals with the help of an organic matrix, such as a protein, that provides a nucleation site for the growth of biominerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of the copper carbonate is produced in the presence of proteins made and secreted by the fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • These fungal proteins that are found extracellularly aid in the size and morphology of the carbonate minerals precipitated by the fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protein as a stand-alone infectious agent stands in contrast to all other known infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, all of which contain nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or both). (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are effective against insects such as cowpea weevil, and fungi like Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) Family, also called the Nucleobase/Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) Family, consists of over 1000 sequenced proteins derived from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, archaea, fungi, plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • but in anaerobic fungi they are protein binding domains, referred to as dockerin domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, anaerobic fungi, typified by Piromyces equi, have been suggested to also synthesise a cellulosome complex, although the dockerin sequences of the bacterial and fungal enzymes are completely different. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • These analyses revealed that the activity of plant-encoded enzymes can be modulated to alter both histone and nonhistone protein acetylation during a susceptible interaction and suggest that virulent C. carbonum utilizes HCT to reprogram the transcriptional response to infection, resulting in an ineffective defense response. (pnas.org)
  • However, it is unclear whether endogenous plant enzymes can modulate protein acetylation during an immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, the application of exogenous HCT enabled us to show that the activity of plant-encoded enzymes (histone deacetylases) can be modulated to alter acetylation of nonhistone proteins during an immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Biochimie 92, 1463-1483 [PubMed] Kudryavtseva O., Dunaevsky Y., Kamzolkina O., Belozersky M. (2008) Fungal proteolytic enzymes: Features of the extracellular proteases of xylotrophic basidiomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some known cases, there is an additional form of regulation in phosphohistidine phosphatase enzymes that act on HPt, such as the Escherichia coli protein SixA which targets ArcB. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example glycoside hydrolases). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the fungal enzymes contain one, two or three copies of the dockerin sequence in tandem within the catalytic polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Prions are infectious agents composed entirely of a protein material that can fold in multiple, structurally abstract ways, at least one of which is transmissible to other prion proteins, leading to disease in a manner that is epidemiologically comparable to the spread of viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitogen-activa
  • Phosphorylated Ssk1 prevents unphosphorylated Ssk1 from activating the Ssk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol osmoregulatory pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heat stress activates the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein tyrosine phosphatases are essential under heat stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pbs2, Mkk1 and Ste7 orthologs are three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MAPKKs) acting as checkpoints of the Hog1, Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK cascades that constitute major parts of fungal signaling network. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • mass spectrometry
  • Using mass spectrometry, we globally quantified the abundance of 3,636 proteins and the levels of acetylation at 2,791 sites in maize plants treated with HCT as well as HCT-deficient or HCT-producing strains of C. carbonum . (pnas.org)
  • They used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify 82 proteins secreted by B. subtilis, only 48 of which had been predicted using the genome-based method of their previous paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • In orthodox two-component signaling, a histidine kinase protein autophosphorylates on a histidine residue in response to an extracellular signal, and the phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to an aspartate protein on the receiver domain of a response regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • At the cell surface, the binding of ligands such as hormones and neurotransmitters to a GPCR activates the receptor by causing a conformational change, which in turn activates the bound G protein on the intracellular-side of the membrane. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The activated receptor promotes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • GTP binding changes the conformation of switch regions within the alpha subunit, which allows the bound trimeric G protein (inactive) to be released from the receptor, and to dissociate into active alpha subunit (GTP-bound) and beta/gamma dimer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The specific combination of subunits in heterotrimeric G proteins affects not only which receptor it can bind to, but also which downstream target is affected, providing the means to target specific physiological processes in response to specific external stimuli [ PMID: 9278091 , PMID: 11882385 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Hsieh CW, Lan JL, Meng Q, Cheng YW, Huang HM, Tsai JJ (2007) Eosinophil apoptosis induced by fungal immunomodulatory peptide-fve via reducing IL-5α receptor. (springer.com)
  • fungus
  • We have now isolated full-length genes for heat shock proteins 60 and 70 from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum, which phylogenetic analyses reveal share common ancestry with mitochondrial orthologues. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, fungal meningitis and encephalitis, especially as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particularly dangerous fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Analyses of these data demonstrate that acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification impacting proteins encoded by many intensively studied maize genes. (pnas.org)
  • DMI3 , a Medicago truncatula gene that acts immediately downstream of calcium spiking in this signaling pathway and is required for both nodulation and mycorrhizal infection, has high sequence similarity to genes encoding calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs). (sciencemag.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Published data indicate that ciliate and trichomonad hydrogenosomes share common ancestry with mitochondria, but the evolutionary origins of fungal hydrogenosomes have been controversial. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Pathways
  • As the complicated nature of secretory pathways was revealed - namely that there are many non-classical pathways of secretion and there are many non-secreted proteins that are a part of the classical secretory pathway - a more in-depth definition of the secretome became necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Lysine acetylation is a key posttranslational modification that regulates diverse proteins involved in a range of biological processes. (pnas.org)
  • Living organisms have evolved protein phosphorylation, a rapid and versatile mechanism that drives signaling and regulates protein function. (sciencemag.org)
  • yeast
  • We found by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays that E. festucae NoxR interacts with homologs of the yeast polarity proteins, Bem1 and Cdc24, and that the Phox and Bem1 (PB1) protein domains found in these proteins are essential for these interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Several yeast proteins have also been identified as having prionogenic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast, this refolding is assisted by chaperone proteins such as Hsp104. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • Cpp1 phosphatase mediated signaling crosstalk between Hog1 and Cek1 mitogen-activated protein kinases is involved in the phenotypic transition in Candida albicans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the less common type, such as the Bacillus subtilis sporulation factor Spo0B or the Caulobacter crescentus protein ChpT, the bundle is assembled as a protein dimer, with similarity to the structure of histidine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalent
  • The length of the G protein signal is controlled by the duration of the GTP-bound alpha subunit, which can be regulated by RGS (regulator of G protein signalling) proteins or by covalent modifications [ PMID: 11313912 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regulation of G proteins by covalent modification. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The link is formed by covalent loops - the pieces of protein backbone closed by two disulphide bonds (formed out of four cysteine residues). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The present invention relates to protein disulfide isomerases which are encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes with (i) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or (ii) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, under the following conditions: presoaking in 5.times.SSC and prehybridizing for 1 h at .about.40.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. An isolated polypeptide having protein disulfide isomerase activity, which (a) is encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes with (i) the DNA sequence of SEQ IDNO:1 or (ii) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, under the following conditions: presoaking in 5.times.SSC and prehybridizing for 1 h at .about.40.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. The polypeptide of claim 1 having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3 or a fragment thereof that has protein disulfide isomerase activity. (patentgenius.com)
  • The sequence identity between different fungal alpha subunits is relatively low and is equivalent to the level of similarity observed between mammalian alpha subtypes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Fungal CYPs share little sequence similarity, except for a few conserved residues that are characteristic of CYPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Features that discriminate fungal effectors from secreted noneffectors are predominantly sequence length, molecular weight and protein net charge, as well as cysteine, serine and tryptophan content. (edu.au)
  • Many secreted proteins have an N-terminal peptide sequence that signals for the translated protein to move into the endoplasmic reticulum where the processing occurs that will ultimately lead to secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Francis Crick recognized the potential significance of the Griffith protein-only hypothesis for scrapie propagation in the second edition of his "Central dogma of molecular biology" (1970): While asserting that the flow of sequence information from protein to protein, or from protein to RNA and DNA was "precluded", he noted that Griffith's hypothesis was a potential contradiction (although it was not so promoted by Griffith). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • G proteins and their receptors (GPCRs) form one of the most prevalent signalling systems in mammalian cells, regulating systems as diverse as sensory perception, cell growth and hormonal regulation [ PMID: 15294442 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Collectively, these results provide a resource for further mechanistic studies examining the regulation of protein function by reversible acetylation and offer insight into the complex immune response triggered by virulent C. carbonum . (pnas.org)
  • regulator
  • NoxR, a fungal homolog of the phagocytic p67 phox Nox regulator, has been shown to regulate both NoxA and NoxB. (pnas.org)
  • These proteins possess a phosphorylatable histidine residue and are responsible for transferring a phosphoryl group from an aspartate residue on an intermediate "receiver" domain, typically part of a hybrid histidine kinase, to an aspartate on a final response regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • In phosphorelays, the "hybrid" histidine kinase contains an internal aspartate-containing receiver domain to which the phosphoryl group is transferred, after which an HPt protein containing a phosphorylatable histidine receives the phosphoryl group and finally transfers it to the response regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two GTP-binding alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein have been identified, Gpa1 and Gpa2. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • abundance
  • Some proteins are secreted in low abundance and then diluted further in the cell culture medium or body fluid, making these proteins difficult to detect and analyze. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Fungal NADPH oxidases are also required for cellular growth and differentiation processes associated with plant host infection and colonization. (pnas.org)
  • Scientists found various enzymatic and inhibitory activities of tree cassava, which have insecticidal and anti-fungal proteins extracted from the latex of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The project aims to understand the structure and function of fungal membrane transport proteins identified as potential new drug targets, using a combination of state-of-the-art structural (X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM) and biochemical/biophysical techniques. (structuralbiology.eu)
  • In aerobic organisms these proteins function in mitochondrial import and protein folding. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Implication for protein foldability and the function as an intramolecular chaperone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histidine phosphotransfer function can be carried out by proteins with at least two different architectures, both composed of a four-helix bundle but differing in the way the bundle is assembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • machinery
  • Our findings identify a potential shared ancestral link between the protein machinery required for fungal polarity establishment and the Nox complex controlling cellular differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • They defined the secretome as all of the secreted proteins and secretory machinery of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The fungal growth rate was found not to be influenced by the feed composition. (biofueljournal.com)
  • A full list of these proteins can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • A census of two-component system domain architecture found that HPt domains in bacteria are more common as domains of larger proteins than they are as individual proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these domains are found on cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 10 (CBM10) is found in two distinct sets of proteins with different functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • classification
  • Additionally, the classification system will aid in studying the roles of CYPs in the evolution of fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has similar biochemical properties to other well characterized fungal serine protease inhibitors of family I66 in the MEROPS classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Phosphorylation after transcription modifies the activity of proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Those authors also reported specific associations with RNA polymerase I and proteins involved in transcription elongation and RNA processing, supporting other evidence of mediator's involvement in elongation and processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • According to previous experiments, FIP isolated from F. velutipes (FIP-fve), as a pure protein (contains 114 amino acids and the molecular weight is 12,704 Da) without carbohydrate [ 2 ], can be used to develop novel protein vaccines [ 14 , 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • secretomes
  • Fungal effectors are commonly predicted from secretomes based on criteria such as small size and cysteine-rich, which suffers from poor accuracy. (edu.au)
  • hypothesis
  • During the 1960s, two London-based researchers, radiation biologist Tikvah Alper and biophysicist John Stanley Griffith, developed the hypothesis that some transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are caused by an infectious agent consisting solely of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Since transmembrane proteins are also processed in the ER, but not secreted, software like the TMHMM server is used to predict transmembrane domains and therefore eliminate false positives. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • This finding, that fungal hydrogenosomes use mitochondrial targeting signals to import two proteins of mitochondrial ancestry that play key roles in aerobic mitochondria, provides further strong evidence that the fungal organelle is also of mitochondrial ancestry. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • cellular
  • These proteins interact with each other in vivo at these same cellular sites as shown by bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays. (pnas.org)
  • Bovine serum from cell culture media and cellular debris can contaminate the collection of secreted proteins used for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific protein
  • The specific protein glomalin has not yet been isolated and described. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In 1982, Stanley B. Prusiner of the University of California, San Francisco announced that his team had purified the hypothetical infectious prion, and that the infectious agent consisted mainly of a specific protein - though they did not manage to isolate the protein until two years after Prusiner's announcement. (wikipedia.org)