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  • murine
  • These data show that the development of a fetal-specific adaptive cellular immune response is a normal consequence of human pregnancy and that unlike reports from some murine models, fetal-specific T cells are not deleted during human pregnancy. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several murine models have demonstrated the presence of fetal-specific CD8 + T cells during pregnancy ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the present investigation, we cloned and characterized a murine Sp1-related zinc finger transcription factor cDNA, which is expressed in the adult and developing brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a novel IL-7-like cytokine, cloned from a murine thymic stromal cell line ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Functional murine interleukin 6 receptor with the intracisternal A particle gene product at its cytoplasmic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • T cells with specificity for fetal epitopes have been detected in women with a history of previous pregnancy, but it has been thought that such fetal-specific cells were generally deleted during pregnancy as a mechanism to maintain maternal tolerance of the fetus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that the GVM response is mediated by donor-derived CD8+ T-cell clones with antimyeloma specificity that may be present before DLI. (aacrjournals.org)
  • epithelial
  • In situ hybridization of a 150 base cRNA antisense probe to tissue sections from rat kidney showed selective CHIP28k localization to epithelial cells in proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. (rupress.org)
  • Human thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a novel epithelial cell-derived cytokine, which induces dendritic cell (DC)-mediated CD4 + T cell responses with a proallergic phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • hTSLP represents the first epithelial cell-derived cytokine that directly triggers DC-mediated TH2 allergic inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • IL-22 is produced by activated NK and T cells and initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens especially in epithelial cells such as respiratory and gut epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 also promotes hepatocyte survival in the liver and epithelial cells in the lung and gut similar to IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some contexts, the pro-inflammatory versus tissue-protective functions of IL-22 are regulated by the often co-expressed cytokine IL-17A Targets of this cytokine are mostly non-hematopoietic cells such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and lung and intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypic and functional
  • CTLs generated in the presence of IL-21, which were transferred in these latter three patients and the patient with MRD, all remained detectable long-term and maintained or acquired in vivo phenotypic and functional characteristics associated with long-lived memory CD8 T cells. (nih.gov)
  • phenotypes
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The potent neurotrophic factor glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • CPA3 functions together with endopeptidases secreted from mast cells such as chymases and tryptases to degrade proteins and peptides,including the apolipoprotein B component of LDL particles and angiotensin Ⅰ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human iPS cells were created from skin cells by direct delivery of proteins, thus eliminating the harmful risks associated with genetic and chemical manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Several systems have facilitated the study of gene activation in eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • 3) How can these be used to understand gene activation in eukaryotic cells? (springer.com)
  • Are surrogates of IGHV gene mutational status useful in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia? (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxypeptidase A3 (mast cell carboxypeptidase A), also known as CPA3, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the CPA3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene nomenclature committee renamed mast cell carboxypeptidase A as CPA3, and the original CPA3 reported by Huang et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal expansion
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an initial infection (or primary immune response) involving a T-dependent antigen, naive follicular B cells are activated in the presence of TFH cells within the follicles of secondary lymphoid organs (i.e. spleen and lymph nodes) and undergo clonal expansion to produce a foci of B cells that are specific for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Structural and functional studies on the human hepatic interleukin-6 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature 2010;467:328 Kim, H-J, Wang X, Radfar S, Sproule TJ, Roopenian DC, Cantor H. CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 binds to a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization is possible if the N-linked glycosylation sites are removed in mutants of IL-22 bound with high-affinity cell-surface receptor sIL-22R1. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms cell surface complexes with IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 chains resulting in signal transduction through receptor, IL-10R2. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Thus, augmentation of the chemokines that recruit protective T cells, while blocking chemokines that recruit detrimental T cells, may constitute a novel approach to IPF therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • We show that CD4 + T cells are increased and that a specific ratio of phenotypically distinct subsets of CD4 + T cells is found in IPF lung parenchyma and lung lymph nodes. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine
  • Endogenous Nanog acts in parallel with cytokine stimulation of Stat3 to drive ES cell self-renewal. (citeweb.info)
  • responses
  • These data further support the role of TSLP as initial trigger of allergic T cell responses and suggest that CD40L-expressing cells may act in combination with TSLP to amplify and sustain pro-allergic responses and cause tissue damage by promoting the generation of IFN-γ-producing cytotoxic effectors. (rupress.org)
  • This study supports expanding efforts to immunologically target WT1 and provides insights into the requirements necessary to establish potent persistent T cell responses. (nih.gov)
  • It has been postulated that these donor T cells can be directed at either tumor-associated antigens (5) or minor histocompatibility antigens (6 , 7 , 8) , but the specific antigens that are targets of effective DLI responses in vivo have not been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • effector
  • Fetal-specific cells demonstrated an effector memory phenotype and were broadly functional. (jimmunol.org)
  • Median fluorescent intensity (MFI) of staining for CD27 (C), CD28 (D), and CD127 (E). Mean effective concentrations of peptide required to achieve 50% lysis (EC 50) (F), and percent maximal lysis at an effector to target ratio (E:T) of 10:1 (G) of clones generated without (left) or with IL-21 (right). (nih.gov)
  • Most of these clones differentiate into the plasma cells, also called effector B cells which produce a first wave of protective antibodies and help clear the infection, but a fraction persist as dormant memory cells that survive in the body on a long-term basis after having gone through a highly mutative and selective germinal center reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme now called CPA3 was originally named mast cell carboxypeptidase A, and another protein was initially called CPA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast Cell
  • Upon mast cell activation and degranulation, CPA3, the chymases, and tryptases are released in complexes with heparin proteoglycan.The parasitic nematode Ascaris produces CPA3 inhibitors, which increase its survival during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new mast cell subtype reported to appear in mucosa is implicated in allergic inflammation and these mast cells have high levels of CPA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor-derived
  • HLA-A*0201-restricted WT1-specific donor-derived CD8 cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clones were administered after HCT to 11 relapsed or high-risk leukemia patients without evidence of on-target toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • cellular
  • Although some models demonstrate partial deletion of this fetal-specific response ( 17 - 19 ) through a process that may be Fas/Fas ligand-dependent ( 20 ), other reports have not documented deletion of fetal-specific T cells ( 21 , 22 ) or any evidence of loss of cellular function ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Conversely, during the course of a germinal center reaction, low affinity or potentially auto-reactive germinal center B cell clones, or those that have gained non-functional mutations are out-competed by higher affinity clones and eventually undergo cellular apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within germinal centers, B cells proliferate and mutate the genetic region coding for their surface antibody (also known as immunoglobulin). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the fact that all the accumulation of cells of a single clone population express many of the one same type of antibody and that these memory B cells survive for long periods of time in a body underscores their functional significance during vaccination and the administration of booster shots. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • GVHD is mediated primarily by donor T cells directed against multiple antigens expressed in different recipient tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To the extent that GVHD targets antigens that are also expressed by recipient tumor cells, GVHD can also be responsible for significant GVL activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A method is described for the production of T-cell lines and clones specific for solubilized Trichinella spiralis antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Providing T cells that can selectively target Wilms tumor antigen 1 (WT1), a transcription factor overexpressed in leukemias that contributes to the malignant phenotype, represents an opportunity to promote antileukemic activity without inducing GVHD. (nih.gov)
  • Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate both angiomas and angiosarcomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generate
  • Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world's first early stage human embryos, as well as the first to successfully generate stem cells from adults using somatic-cell nuclear transfer (therapeutic cloning). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lanza and his colleagues were the first to demonstrate that nuclear transplantation could be used to reverse the aging process and to generate immune-compatible tissues, including the first organ grown in the laboratory from cloned cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • This study shows how individual HSC clones heterogeneously compensate for lymphopoietic deficiencies of other HSC s in vivo . (embopress.org)
  • The processes of in vivo sequence diversification, antigen-driven somatic hypermutation, and numerous quality control checkpoints ensure the non-random selection and enrichment of B cells that produce antibodies with therapeutically desirable properties ( 2 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • endothelial cell
  • PECAM-1 is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The cDNA was cloned in the course of investigating transcription factors that bind to Sp1 consensus sequences, using the in situ filter detection method, and it was found to encode a protein having the same C 2 -H 2 zinc finger motif as Sp1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase are then used to clone the sequences into bacterial plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • We used MHC-peptide dextramer multimers containing an immunodominant peptide derived from HY to identify fetal-specific T cells in women who were pregnant with a male fetus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, it is now recognized that fetal cells and noncellular material, including placental microparticles ( 8 , 9 ), are transferred into the maternal circulation early in gestation ( 10 ) and that fetal cells may then persist lifelong in the maternal circulation ( 11 ) and tissues ( 12 ), a phenomenon termed "fetal microchimerism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cantor
  • Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:2010 †Leavenworth JW, †Wang X, Wenander CS, Spee P, Cantor H. Mobilization of natural killer cells inhibits development of collagen-induced arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 Leavenworth JW, Tang X, Kim HJ, Wang X, Cantor H. Amelioration of arthritis through mobilization of CD8+ regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Although the participation of CD8 + T cells in allergic inflammation is well documented, their functional properties as well as the pathways leading to their generation remain poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • Independent differentiative pathways of Ly1 and Ly23 subclasses of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Differences in the cell binding affinity of a cross-reactive monoclonal anti-Ia alloantibody in mice of different H-2 haplotypes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, as an infection proceeds, memory B cells selected in the later stages of a germinal center response are found to have accumulated the highest numbers of immunoglobulin mutation events with superior affinity towards their targeted antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Human memory CD4 + T cells acquire multiple fates when responding to infection or vaccination. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nanog mRNA is present in pluripotent mouse and human cell lines, and absent from differentiated cells. (citeweb.info)
  • While the clinical success of fully human monoclonal antibodies derived from transgenic animals is well established, recent trends have seen increasingly stringent functional design goals and a shift in difficulty as the industry attempts to tackle the next generation of disease-associated targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • potent
  • Additional CD40L triggering of TSLP-activated DCs induced CD8 + T cells with potent cytolytic activity, producing large amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ, while retaining their capacity to produce IL-5 and IL-13. (rupress.org)
  • There is now broader evidence that CD8 + T cells, once regarded solely as potent cytotoxic effectors in antiviral and antitumoral immunity, are also able to secrete TH2 cytokines ( 8 - 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • mediate
  • Transferred WT1-reactive CD8+ T cells can mediate antileukemic activity and persist in post-transplant patients. (nih.gov)
  • Hela
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • p>Used to describe "traditional" genetic interactions such as suppressors and synthetic lethals as well as other techniques such as functional complementation, rescue experiments, or inferences about a gene drawn from the phenotype of a mutation in a different gene. (uniprot.org)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • We have also demonstrated that this enzyme is the most powerful molecular motor yet characterized and is by itself capable of overcoming mechanical obstacles to transcription that exist in living cells. (searlescholars.net)
  • genes
  • Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a screen for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • nuclei
  • The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • HAP1 cells are grown in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum and penicillin/ streptomycin. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Epithelial
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Further to this HAP1 wild-type cells have been extensively characterized by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • organisms
  • The majority of cell types in multicellular organisms are polarized and face two different environments. (rupress.org)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)