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  • antibodies
  • Seven out of 1072 (0.7%) Red Cross volunteer blood donors from the rural areas around Oulu had agglutinating antibodies with a titre of 80 or higher, and 5 (0.5%) also had cell-mediated reactivity against F. tularensis. (nih.gov)
  • Addition of antibodies to whole cells of F. tularensis completely restored complement activity. (nih.gov)
  • From these results it can be concluded that normal human serum is bactericidal for serum-sensitive Cap(-) F. tularensis strains through the action of complement initiated by the classical complement pathway and serum resistance of virulent strains is not due to absence of targets for bactericidal antibodies, but is due to their low accessibility because of O-side chains of lipopolysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • Centers for Diseas
  • Francisella tularensis is one of the most virulent bacteria known and a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A select agent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because F. tularensis is able to infect through the respiratory route and cause disease with a very small dose, can be easily disseminated, results in a high mortality rate, and has the potential to cause panic among the public, F. tularensis is given the highest priority classification by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category A select agent and is a potential bioweapon. (frontiersin.org)
  • genus
  • The two species F. tularensis and F. philomiragia and in addition a number of more recently identified tick endosymbionts are the only members of the genus Francisella , which diverges deeply among the γ-proteobacteria ( 22 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • predominantly
  • Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected among VNTR loci of F. tularensis , consistent with a predominantly clonal population structure. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have implicated TLR2 as a critical element in the host protective response to F. tularensis infection, but questions remain about whether TLR2 signaling dominates the response in all circumstances and with all species of Francisella and whether F. tularensis PAMPs are predominantly recognized by TLR2/TLR1 or TLR2/TLR6. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • During infection, F. tularensis replicates predominantly in macrophages but also proliferate in other cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • In parallel, single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were analyzed by sequencing of internal fragments of genes of F. tularensis and related bacteria of the γ-subgroup of proteobacteria. (asm.org)
  • We are still unsure about the function of most F. tularensis genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Recently genes needed by F. tularensis for growth and survival have been identified," said Prof. Oyston. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mutations in F. tularensis LVS capB and capC , which are similar to Bacillus anthracis capsule genes, had no effect on capsule expression. (asmscience.org)
  • PATHWAY
  • F. tularensis is recognized by the TLR2 signaling pathway at the cell surface and also while within phagosomes, followed by activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways and proinflammatory cytokine production. (asmscience.org)
  • palaearctica
  • Wir beschreiben hier zwei Fälle von Sepsis, die durch F. tularensis biovar palaearctica verursacht waren, und bei denen es uns gelungen ist, die krankheitserregenden Bakterien zu züchten. (springer.com)
  • Proteins
  • Detection of glycoproteins using a carbohydrate-specific Pro-Q Emerald staining following two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of F. tularensis membrane-enriched proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • sodB(Ft) mutants revealed upregulated levels of chaperonine proteins DnaK, GroEL and Bfr that have been shown to be important for generation of a potent immune response against Francisella infection. (nih.gov)
  • bacterial
  • F. tularensis is unique in its ability to suppress host immune responses by inhibiting MAPK activation through either a bacterial factor, RipA, host MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1), or other unknown mechanisms. (asmscience.org)
  • Inside the host cells, F. tularensis resides transiently in an acidified late endosome-like compartment before disruption of the phagosomal membrane and escape into the cytosol, where bacterial proliferation occurs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whilst inside the phagosome, F. tularensis temporarily induce proinflammatory cytokines in PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, which is counteracted by the induction of SHIP that negatively regulates PI3K/Akt activation and promotes bacterial escape into the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)