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  • genital
  • At Visit 2 (cycle days 20-25), after it has been confirmed that the participant meets all of the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria, genital samples will be taken and she will be given 2 applicators of tenofovir 1% gel to insert two hours apart. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At Visit 3 (cycle days 20-25), blood and genital samples will be collected. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • She will be instructed to return approximately 3 or 11 hours after insertion of the second gel for Visit 4 (cycle days 5-10) and blood and genital samples will be taken. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Measures
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • Methods
  • Practical and comprehensive, Cell Cycle Synchronization: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition is a valuable resource for PhD students and postdoctoral fellows, and researchers interested in general science, pharmacy, medicine and public health, computer science, and life sciences. (springer.com)
  • cyclin
  • Despite the distinctions, plants and animals share conserved cell cycle regulatory machineries such as the cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the DREAM complex ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A1 was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin binds both Cdk1 and Cdk2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal cells in vivo, with suppressed expression of c-myc, cyclins D3 and E2, and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In contrast, the single-strand scission of cellular DNA and the final cell lethality induced by NCS were not affected by caffeine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because septin has such a fundamental role in various cellular processes, understanding more about it can lead to a better understanding of the cell itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that intracellular proteases called caspases degrade the cellular contents of the cell by proteolysis upon activation of the death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • PHILADELPHIA − Chemicals found in grape seeds significantly inhibited growth of colorectal tumors in both cell cultures and in mice, according to researchers who have already demonstrated the extract's anti-cancer effects in other tumor types. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Also, Apratoxin A has lacks the necessary selectivity to be a potential anti-tumor agent even though numorous reports have shown differential cytotoxicity in 60 tumor cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Lawrence and colleagues found that the 17-gene expression patterns that predict prostate cancer aggressiveness are similar in tumor and normal prostate tissue. (ascopost.com)
  • Additionally, multinucleate cells are common in tumors, making her lab work extremely relevant as we try to better understand how multinucleate tumor cells form. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppress
  • Caffeine was found to suppress the cell cycle effects of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent neocarzinostatin (NCS). (aacrjournals.org)
  • KaiC has been found to not only suppress kaiBC when overexpressed, but also suppress circadian expression of all genes in the cyanobacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclins
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that contribute to the temporal coordination of cell cycle events. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogenesis
  • Breast cancer There is downregulation of miR-26a in breast cancer specimens and cell lines, and it has been shown to functionally antagonise human breast carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • These results suggest that the mechanism by which NCS inhibits the cell cycle traverse involves a kind of cell damage which is repairable in a manner promoted by caffeine and hence is different from single-strand scission of DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • nuclei
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • When chromosomes segregate into daughter nuclei it is too late for chromosome alignment to be corrected, and a cell cycle delay caused by spindle checkpoint activation would be disadvantageous. (harvard.edu)
  • Inhibitors
  • The long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF7 cell model has been proposed to recapitulate acquired resistance to aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women. (nature.com)
  • regulatory
  • The question of how the cell cycle regulatory activities are integrated into the specific stem cell context is not well understood. (pnas.org)
  • Significantly, animal homologs of TSO1 and MYB3R1 are members of a cell cycle regulatory complex, suggesting that this conserved module operates in both plants and animals. (pnas.org)
  • Since animal homologs of TSO1 and MYB3R1 are components of a cell cycle regulatory complex, the DREAM complex, we tested and showed that TSO1 and MYB3R1 coimmunoprecipitated in tobacco leaf cells. (pnas.org)
  • Our work reveals a conserved cell cycle regulatory module, consisting of TSO1 and MYB3R1, for proper plant development. (pnas.org)
  • This presents a regulatory problem for the cell: switching the checkpoint to an inactive state after it has performed its function. (harvard.edu)
  • the feedback circuit provides an example of a simple mechanism the cell can use to help solve this regulatory problem. (harvard.edu)
  • division
  • The study found that the cell cycle, which is the division cells go through, was interrupted. (redorbit.com)
  • Cells in the PZs give rise to leaf or flower primordia through rapid cell division ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Desynchronizing Embryonic Cell Division Waves Reveals the Robustness of Xenopus laevis Development. (stanford.edu)
  • One such wave, the cell division wave, emerges from the collective cell division timing of first tens and later hundreds of cells throughout the embryo. (stanford.edu)
  • Following her time at Duke, she conducted post-doctoral research on the control of nuclear division in multinucleate fungal cells with Peter Philippsen at the University of Basel Biozentrum in Basel, Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most significant discoveries Gladfelter made was asynchronous nuclear division in multinucleated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is these cells that are of interest because of the challenges they face in cell division and growth due to their size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • The authors found that it increases availability of a critical protein, Cip1/p21, in tumors that effectively freezes the cell cycle, and often pushes a cancer cell to self destruct. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cyanobacterial metabolites are commonly found to be useful in cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, Apartoxin A has been found to be a potent cancer cell cytotoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you know little about this fruit, understand this: It's been found to prevent or stop certain colon and breast cancer cells in the lab. (redorbit.com)
  • If you look at what people currently perceive as a superfood, people think of high antioxidant capacity, and mango is not quite there," said Dr. Susanne Talcott, who with her husband, Dr. Steve Talcott, conducted the study on cancer cells. (redorbit.com)
  • But the team checked mango against cancer cells anyway, and found it prevented or stopped cancer growth in certain breast and colon cell lines, Susanne Talcott noted. (redorbit.com)
  • But the breast and colon cancer lines underwent apotosis, or programmed cell death. (redorbit.com)
  • That is a general observation for any natural agent, that they target cancer cells and leave the healthy cells alone, in reasonable concentrations at least. (redorbit.com)
  • The Talcotts evaluated polyphenolics, and more specifically gallotannins as being the class of bioactive compounds (responsible for preventing or stopping cancer cells). (redorbit.com)
  • This is crucial information, Suzanne Talcott said, because it indicates a possible mechanism for how the cancer cells are prevented or stopped. (redorbit.com)
  • The scientists leading the project hope that their method will be used to identify and sort cancer cells circulating in patients' blood, enable faster drug discovery, and improve the quality of cell-based medical therapies. (phys.org)
  • The caffeine-caused reduction of cell cycle effects was also observed in several other cancer chemotherapeutic agents, including bleomycin and Adriamycin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such a mechanism might be common to the cell cycle effects of X-irradiation and several cancer chemotherapeutic agents including NCS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The critical importance of this cell-cycle transition is underlined by the fact that most cancer cells are defective in the G 1 -S checkpoint ( 3 ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Researchers are working to find a way to use this gene to create anti-cancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Although much work has been done to understand the mechanism-of-action for this cytotoxin, there is no defined understanding for how Apratoxin A mediates antitumor activity in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s, rapamycin was also found to have anticancer activity although the exact mechanism of action remained unknown until many years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcript
  • Three transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only two of them has been characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found overexpressed in a subset of high-grade gliomas and directly targets the PTEN transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The current Ghost Cytometry method involves staining cells with fluorescent dyes that naturally color any cell type in a unique way. (phys.org)
  • Activation of the primordial follicle involves the following: a morphological change from flattened to cuboidal granulosa cells, proliferation of granulosa cells, formation of the protective zona pellucida layer, and growth of the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • In complex vertebrate organisms like human, this task is hindered by enormous genomic space, numerous cell types, and distinct experimental procedures with data that is often unsuitable for direct comparison. (biomedcentral.com)
  • microscopy
  • Human experts using microscopy routinely identify and sort fewer than 10 cells per second, sometimes with less accuracy. (phys.org)
  • Her lab combined live cell microscopy and computational approaches with biochemistry and genetics analyses to attain results. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • Amy S. Gladfelter (born 27 April 1974) is a quantitative cell biologist and Associate Professor of Biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she mainly investigates cell cycle-control and the septin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • She had her own lab which dealt with the arrangement of cells in time and space, and the organization of the septin cytoskeleton in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Sometimes there are no stains, dyes, or other biomarkers that can effectively label different types of cells or different activation states of the same cell. (phys.org)
  • Surprisingly, we find that activation of Gcn2 does not depend on the processing of DNA damage and that activated Gcn2 alone is not sufficient to delay entry into S phase in UVC-irradiated cells. (pnas.org)
  • researchers
  • A team from a scientific start-up company and academic researchers has invented a new cell identification and sorting system called Ghost Cytometry. (phys.org)
  • Ghost Cytometry will help researchers who need to classify cells in the lab, and benefit clinicians and patients who need fast and accurate isolation and diagnosis of cell samples," said Associate Professor Sadao Ota from the University of Tokyo. (phys.org)
  • In an article published in the June 15, 2018, issue of Science , the researchers demonstrated that Ghost Cytometry can sort at least two different types of cells with similar sizes and structures with very few misidentified cells. (phys.org)
  • The machine learning system does not need images to analyze the cells, but if researchers require images for additional analysis, the single pixel detector camera does capture enough information to digitally reconstruct traditional, two-dimensional pictures of cells that pass through the cytometry system if researchers require images for additional analysis. (phys.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • By combining specific antibody-based detection of DNA damage with a cytotoxicity indicator, both parameters can be measured simultaneously in the same cell. (thermofisher.com)
  • stem cells
  • Plant postembryonic development relies on a small pool of stem cells at the shoot and root tip. (pnas.org)
  • An important distinction between animal and plant development is that the animal cell lineage is already determined during embryogenesis, while plant cells continuously develop and commit to new organs during postembryonic development, owing to the self-renewing stem cells at the two growing tips, the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and the root apical meristem (RAM). (pnas.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Though the KaiABC gene cluster has been found to exist only in cyanobacteria, evolutionarily KaiC contains homologs that occur in Archaea and Proteobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • If errors in chromosome alignment are detected, spindle checkpoint activity delays the cell cycle, which allows time for the defects to be corrected. (harvard.edu)
  • In summary, the opposing activities of the checkpoint and the APC let cells switch rapidly between metaphase, when they can sensitively monitor chromosome alignment, and anaphase, when they are irreversibly committed to entering the next cell cycle. (harvard.edu)
  • tumor cell
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Air pollutants like particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and lead (Pb) can affect the lung in numerous ways like inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle death. (indianexpress.com)
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • c-Abl is sometimes used to refer to the version of the gene found within the mammalian genome, while v-Abl refers to the viral gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junctions
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • A feature of this peer reviewed study that left a deep impression on me was the fact that each time we modified our PCR primers (think of these as the baited fish hooks used to pull specific genes out of an ocean of DNA), we found new species. (blogspot.com)
  • What is to keep this fungus (the genera is typically found in diverse habitats) from transferring to other host plants, propagating patented genes throughout the environment? (blogspot.com)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the first Archaeal genome, Methanococcus jannaschii, had been sequenced completely in 1996, it was found that the genes in the genome of Methanococcus jannaschii involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation were more related to their counterparts in eukaryotes than to those in other prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In P2's genome, the genes related to chromosome replication were likewise found to be more related to those in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other genes in the respiratory chain which partake in the production of ATP were not similar to what is found in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino
  • Two more TPR domains are found in the TTC39B protein: TPR1 which spans from amino acids 393 to 426 (34 amino acids long) and TPR2 which spans from amino acids 626 to 659 (also 34 amino acids long). (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescence (/sɪˈnɛsəns/) or biological aging (also spelled biological ageing) is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • While a micropropagated plant may contain dozens of microbial species living in and around its cells, a plant growing in a healthy soil may contain hundreds of thousands of associated microbes. (blogspot.com)
  • Other species can be found throughout the world in areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, such as geological formations called mud pots, which are also known as solfatare (plural of solfatara). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Outcomes had been gathered from 3 different batches of MCF-7 cells. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. solfataricus has been found in different areas including Yellowstone National Park, Mount St. Helens, Iceland, Italy, and Russia to name a few. (wikipedia.org)
  • determines
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The most well-studied and well-established function of viroporins is the permeabilization of the cell membrane to ions and small solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • Spotted fever can be very difficult to diagnose in its early stages, and even experienced doctors who are familiar with the disease find it hard to detect. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • triggers
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • substitutes
  • The use of hand seals substitutes for the incantations for magic found in other sources, and was based on the motions of ninja in various role-playing games. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • detect
  • Atsatt and Whiteside have reported features of plant associated fungi that make them particularly difficult to detect and separate from plant cells. (blogspot.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Loss of membrane polarization can promote viral yields through a variety of mechanisms that operate throughout the viral life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • In human somatic cells, the cell cycle lasts about 18 hours, and the G1 phase takes up about 1/3 of that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • builds
  • After mating, the female builds a nest with urn-shaped cells made with mud, feces, and plant resin, and provisions these with nectar and pollen before laying an egg in each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group
  • He co-founded Epic Healthcare Group, a $1.4 billion corporation with nearly 15,000 employees operating in 37 hospitals in 30 states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this group have depressions on their hind legs that are used for nest construction, cell provisions, and transportation of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • This indicates that Sulfolobus has a TCA cycle system similar to that found in mitochondria of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell structures have been observed to be similar across nests. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also adopted the term "battery", (denoting the increasing of power with a row of similar units as in a battery of cannon), subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete
  • In larger nests, once a layer of cells is complete, the surface is covered with mud to make a new floor for the next layer of cells to be built. (wikipedia.org)
  • remain
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)