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  • limb
  • Ott began by suspending the decellularised forelimb in a bioreactor, plumbing the collagen artery into an artificial circulatory system to provide nutrients, oxygen and electrical stimulation to the limb. (newscientist.com)
  • Ott finished off the limb by coating the forelimbs with skin grafts ( Biomaterials , doi.org/4w7 ). (newscientist.com)
  • The right arm showed pathologies that agreed well with compensatory focus of the right limb over the left, which we wouldn't expect if the forelimbs were doing nothing. (cmnh.org)
  • The forelimb is an intricate structure with complex muscular and soft tissue structures both within the thoracic limb and extrinsic attachments to the thorax. (vin.com)
  • We conclude that, in normal adults, any inputs to forelimb motoneurons from the ipsilateral corticospinal tract are weak and indirect and that modulation of M1 cell firing seems to be related primarily to control of the contralateral limb. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we show that forelimb buds are not formed in Gpr161 knockout mice embryos despite establishment of prospective limb fields. (biologists.org)
  • Overall, Gpr161 promotes forelimb formation, regulates limb patterning, prevents periarticular chondrocyte proliferation, and drives osteoblastogenesis in intramembranous bones in a cilium-dependent manner. (biologists.org)
  • Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When considering the tetrapod limb, one might ask why the forelimbs are relatively larger or smaller than the hindlimbs in some species, and how these differences have arisen during evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examine here the extent to which features of early limb development, especially chondrogenesis, might be associated with obvious differences in forelimb and hindlimb size or function in the adult. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7. The observations indicate that both ingested steak and infused leucine produce important changes in the selection of respiratory fuels by the human forelimb, that BCOA is preferentially oxidized rather than released from human limb tissues, and that glutamine, not alanine, is the major amino group carrier leaving the forelimb both after a protein meal and after leucine administration. (clinsci.org)
  • hindlimb
  • A severe (50 %), immediate and permanent loss of extensor force occurred in the forelimb but not in the hindlimb of the injured side, accompanied by elbow and wrist kinematic impairments and early adaptations of whole-body movements that initially compensated the balance but changed continuously over the follow-up period to allow effective locomotion. (springer.com)
  • However, the partitioning of negative and positive work between the fore- and hindlimbs of a quadruped is not likely to be equal because the forelimb produces a net braking force while the hindlimb produces a net propulsive force. (biologists.org)
  • It was hypothesized that the forelimb would do net negative work while the hindlimb did net positive work during trotting in the horse. (biologists.org)
  • Work done by the hindlimb was indeed positive (consistently 0.34 J kg -1 across all speeds), but, contrary to our hypothesis, net work by the forelimb was essentially zero (but also independent of trotting speed). (biologists.org)
  • Whole-mounts and histological sections were used to code the appearance of 10 developmental events comprising landmarks of development from the early bud stage to late chondrogenesis in the forelimb and the corresponding serial homologues in the hindlimb. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the primitive condition, as seen in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, the forelimb/pectoral fin develops earlier than the hindlimb/pelvic fin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pyramidal
  • Here, we examine this issue by using a dynamic clamp feedback system to introduce in vivo -like conductance activity into pyramidal neurons in slices of forelimb motor cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • adult
  • All other species examined, including a bat with its greatly enlarged forelimbs modified as wings in the adult, showed near synchrony in the development of the fore and hindlimbs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • rats
  • Rats with spinal cords half severed at the second cervical vertebrae (C2) regained complete diaphragm and partial forelimb function on the severed side after treatment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Seventy percent of rats treated with the enzyme chronically, also began to use their forelimbs to move about and explore their environment (compared to only 30 percent of control animals). (eurekalert.org)
  • 2016
  • Sent: Friday, February 26, 2016 10:53 AM Subject: Re: Dilophosaurus Forelimb Bone Maladies Predation isn't the only (or even most likely) way to accumulate injuries, however. (cmnh.org)
  • stimulation
  • Specifically, we examined muscarinic modulation of forelimb motor cortex, a brain area in which cholinergic stimulation is known to be necessary for modifications during motor skill learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • injuries
  • The authors of the paper pointed out that theropod forelimb injuries are remarkably common. (cmnh.org)
  • The Dilophosaurus specimen that they looked at showed multiple injuries to the left forelimb that all showed signs of healing prior to death (so it did manage to survive the injuries, although I suspect that the wording of the last post might have been a bit muddled, since I think that is what Mike was arguing). (cmnh.org)
  • It accumulated numerous injuries, each of which would have compromised the forelimbs for a period of time. (cmnh.org)
  • We can at least say that the forelimbs were not necessary for predation (otherwise these injuries would have been lethal). (cmnh.org)
  • Carrier
  • The forelimb is used as a 'strut' (Carrier, Deban, Fischbein 2008) but is also actively involved in propulsion in the dog (Williams, Wilson, Daynes, Peckham, Payne 2008). (vin.com)
  • functional
  • The objective of this contribution was to study morphological changes in the forelimb of basal archosaurs and to assess their phylogenetical and functional implications. (unlp.edu.ar)
  • detect
  • Therefore, these results demonstrate the ability of SSEPs to detect significant enhancements in the activation of forelimb sensory pathways following both midline and unilateral contusive SCI at T8. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Potential
  • These characters can be interpreted as potential adaptations for erect forelimbs, as the olecranon is the insertion of the main forearm extensor (Mm. triceps brachii) and the scapulocoracoid-humerus articulation is further stabilized, allowing the limbs to move mainly on a parasagital plane. (unlp.edu.ar)
  • motor
  • These are important for signaling forelimb movements, and this finding suggests one important cellular aspect of muscarinic modulation for motor skill learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Journal
  • Jonathan S. Merritt, Helen M. S. Davies, Colin Burvill, and Marcus G. Pandy, "Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , vol. 2008, Article ID 165730, 9 pages, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Animals
  • Tigers primarily defend themselves with their claws, large teeth and powerful forelimbs that allow them to hold other animals down. (reference.com)
  • important
  • These are one of the first results that recover valuable postural information from the forelimb in this important group of diapsids. (unlp.edu.ar)
  • least
  • While they have decellularised around 100 rat forelimbs, recellularising at least half of them, there is still much work to do, says Ott. (newscientist.com)
  • The evidence presented in the paper supports theropods (or at least this one Dilophosaurus) using their forelimbs a lot. (cmnh.org)
  • Although
  • Although we can't say for certain that the forelimbs were engaged in prey capture, that is a major activity for most extant predators. (cmnh.org)
  • Middle
  • The knee did some work, but like the forelimb proximal joints, had little movement during the middle of stance when the flexion moment was the greatest, probably serving to allow the efficient transmission of energy from the hip musculature to the ground. (biologists.org)
  • Effects
  • 1. The effects of ingested grilled beef steak (250 g raw weight of lean meat) and infusion of leucine (3.8 g) on human forelimb metabolism were studied by monitoring the concentrations of various metabolites in arterial (A) and venous (V) blood of four overnight fasted and rested men. (clinsci.org)
  • force
  • López-Dolado E., Collazos-Castro J.E. (2013) Forelimb Force Deficits and Whole Body Compensations after Rat Cervical Spinal Hemisection. (springer.com)