• This process, carried out at ambient temperature and pressure, uses anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, water vapor in a nitrogen carrier, and a unique processing sequence to achieve etch rates of about 200A/second, with 5 percent or better uniformity. (astm.org)
  • Additional information on these products and other topics can be found in Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States . (cdc.gov)
  • To determine the relative effectiveness of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents, and to examine the potentially modifying effects of baseline caries level and supervised toothbrushing. (cochrane.org)
  • Epidemiological studies in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s revealed an inverse relationship between the natural fluoride content of waters and the rate of dental caries. (britannica.com)
  • Fluoride is considered a beneficial nutrient because of its role in protecting against dental caries, although an essential function in the strict sense has not been established in human nutrition. (britannica.com)
  • Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. (empowher.com)
  • Nakamoto and Rawls, from the Health Sciences Centers of Louisiana State University and the University of Texas , respectively, write, 'When fluoride was discovered to prevent dental caries, it was hailed as one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century. (prnewswire.com)
  • Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite , but are present only in trace quantities in bodies of water in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride s such as manganese fluoride (MnF 2 ), iron (II) fluoride (FeF 2 ), cobalt fluoride (CoF 2 ), and nickel fluoride (NiF 2 ) are other crystals that exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering of the transition metal ions. (britannica.com)
  • For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the structures often deviate from those of the chlorides, as illustrated by the main fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F− centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • To maximize the topical effect of fluoride, tablets and lozenges are intended to be chewed or sucked for 1-2 minutes before being swallowed. (cdc.gov)
  • Gaseous and particulate fluorides are more toxic to sensitive plants than is sulfur dioxide because they are accumulated by leaves. (britannica.com)
  • Fluoride varnish can be applied to both baby teeth and adult teeth by a dentist. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Fluoride prevents the acid produced by the bacteria in plaque from dissolving, or demineralizing, tooth enamel, the hard and shiny substance that protects the teeth. (kidshealth.org)
  • Fluoride also allows teeth damaged by acid to repair, or remineralize, themselves. (kidshealth.org)
  • Fluoride is extremely effective at protecting tooth enamel from decay, especially while enamel is being formed in the jaws before the permanent teeth erupt. (britannica.com)
  • Fluoride is a mineral stored in teeth and bones that strengthens them by aiding in the retention of calcium. (britannica.com)
  • Though it varies with age, the Food and Drug Administration has determined a recommended daily allowance for fluoride to maintain healthy teeth and bones. (ehow.com)
  • These people are putting their children's teeth above their children's brains, and that's ridiculous," said Paul Connett, author of the book "The Case Against Fluoride," who traveled to the meeting from New York. (yahoo.com)
  • This observation led dental researchers to conclude that if fluoride is present during the initial stages of tooth formation, those teeth will emerge with stronger enamel. (empowher.com)
  • Direct application of fluoride to teeth was also thought to provide benefit, but only to a much lesser extent. (empowher.com)
  • It now appears that fluoride acts only on teeth that have already erupted. (empowher.com)
  • The only dental value of fluoridated water, therefore, occurs during the process of drinking it, when the fluoride in the water bathes the surface of the teeth. (empowher.com)
  • Fluoride plays a role in the mineralization of your bones and teeth, a process essential for keeping them hard and strong. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, about 99% of the body's fluoride is stored in bones and teeth. (healthline.com)
  • Fluoride can be ingested or applied topically to your teeth. (healthline.com)
  • He received a request to look at fluoride's effects on teeth from Alcoa lab director Francis Frary, who was concerned about mounting lawsuits related to the fluoride pollution his plant produced. (mercola.com)
  • Tablets, lozenges, or liquids (including fluoride-vitamin preparations) are available. (cdc.gov)
  • Tablets and lozenges are manufactured with 1.0, 0.5, or 0.25 mg fluoride. (cdc.gov)
  • If you live in a nonfluoridated area, your doctor or dentist may prescribe fluoride drops, tablets, or vitamins after your baby is 6 months old. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many minerals are known, but of paramount commercial importance is fluorite (CaF 2 ), which is roughly 49% fluoride by mass. The soft, colorful mineral is found worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • For children aged less than 6 years, the dentist, physician, or other health care provider should weigh the risk for tooth decay without fluoride supplements, the decay prevention offered by supplements, and the potential for dental fluorosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The decision of what fluoride levels to use for children under 6 years should be balanced with the risk of fluorosis. (cochrane.org)
  • Excess intake of fluoride for long periods of time can cause fluorosis. (healthline.com)
  • Children consuming too much fluoride from multiple sources over a period of time have a higher risk of dental fluorosis ( 16 ). (healthline.com)
  • They lament that it's unfortunate fluorosis is treated as a cosmetic effect and that there isn't more concern about the consequences of fluoride exposures to the children's general health. (prnewswire.com)
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride ( PVDF ) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride . (wikipedia.org)
  • Toothpastes containing at least 1000 parts per million (ppm) fluoride are effective at preventing tooth decay in children, which supports the current international standard level recommended. (cochrane.org)
  • PVDF's carbon and fluoride elemental stability contributes to this resistance, as well as the polymeric integration of PVDF during its processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride contributes a distinctive bitter taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this substance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The greatest fluoride accumulation occurs in the hippocampus portion of the brain,' they write. (prnewswire.com)
  • Some of the body's 'memories' of early fluoride exposure may become translated into pathology and thereby determine disease in later life,' they write. (prnewswire.com)
  • Your child's 6-month checkup offers a great chance to discuss fluoride supplementation with your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • In addition, it can be found in rain water that washes fluoride-containing particulates from the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Many fluoride minerals are known, but of paramount commercial importance is fluorite (CaF2), which is roughly 49% fluoride by mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is largely due to the fact that the first widespread usage of fluoride containing products were for the eradication of vermin. (ehow.com)
  • Using psychological principles targeted at what he called, the "mass mind," Bernays was quite successful in attracting public support for the widespread consumer use of fluoride. (mercola.com)
  • Over-the-counter solutions of 0.05% sodium fluoride (230 ppm fluoride) for daily rinsing are available for use by persons older than 6 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • Subsequent studies have shown that fluoride does not increase cancer rates and is not a carcinogen. (ehow.com)
  • The Environmental Working Group has petitioned the National Toxicology Program to classify fluoride as a human carcinogen based in part on Dr. Bassin,s work. (rense.com)
  • We recommend EWG,s petition as a succinct and authoritative overview of the total weight of peer-reviewed evidence supporting the classification of fluoride as a human carcinogen. (rense.com)
  • There is evidence that increasing the intake of fluoride may promote hardening of the softened nodule of otosclerotic bone, thus arresting or retarding its expansion. (britannica.com)
  • Attorney Paul Beeber , NYSCOF President says, 'As a precaution, it's important for pregnant women to be told they should limit their fluoride intake. (prnewswire.com)
  • They explain that excessive fluoride intake by the young could result in nutritional stresses during critical growth period. (prnewswire.com)
  • The systematic name fluoride , the valid IUPAC name, is determined according to the additive nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the name fluoride is also used in compositional IUPAC nomenclature which does not take the nature of bonding involved into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products that may lower the risk for tooth decay, especially for people who are at higher risk for decay. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride varnish should be offered 2 or more times a year for children of all ages with tooth decay or those at high risk of developing it. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This means fluoride has been added to bring it up to around 1mg of fluoride per litre of water, which is a level found to reduce tooth decay levels. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Scientific research continues to show the benefits of fluoride when it comes to prevention of tooth decay and its safety. (kidshealth.org)
  • In January 1945, the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan, became the first of thousands of U.S. municipalities to proudly add fluoride to its community water source, under the guise of preventing tooth decay. (mercola.com)
  • In the event that fluoride overdose is suspected, the National Poison Control Center should be contacted at 1-800-222-1222 for information on how to proceed. (ehow.com)
  • Additional studies have been launched to determine if the fluoride used in municipal water and dental preparations can cause damage to white blood cells or lead to cancer. (ehow.com)
  • In 1948, the Eastman Kodak Company acquired the last patent for rights to a hydrolyzed fluoride formula to be used as a rat poison and insecticide. (ehow.com)
  • Typically the fluoride anion is surrounded by four or six cations, as is typical for other halides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, there have been numerous reports that fluoride may possibly be associated with health-related problems,' such as Autism, lowering IQ, bone diseases, thyroid, and sleep disorders, they explain. (prnewswire.com)
  • Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water contain F− and bifluoride HF− 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Few inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without undergoing significant hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)