Loading...
  • isolation
  • Various new techniques, ranging from the determination of growth and activity of microorganisms in the environments to their isolation and characterization, were assembled in "Modern Methods in the Study of Microbial Ecology" edited by Thomas Rosswall in 1973). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • The new methods and techniques were proved to be successful for the analysis of microbial community in various fields, soil and water microbiology, food preservation and fermentation, and medical microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • direct
  • The direct attachment of the messenger to the antibody reduces the number of steps in the procedure, saving time and reducing non-specific background signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • A procedure has been developed for the determination of the concentration of infective Newcastle disease virus (NDV) based on the enumeration of singly infected and distributed HeLa cells which are visualized by staining with fluorescent antibody. (rupress.org)
  • Infective virus assayed by the fluorescent cell-counting procedure is expressed in terms of cell-infecting units (CIU). (rupress.org)
  • chemical
  • While the fixation regimens have been designed to avoid change of the sample's internal structure, especially the chemistry and three-dimensional structure of the site of the antigen to which the antibody will bind, the avoidance of any form of chemical modification is preferred. (encyclopedia.com)
  • application
  • Still, details of the trafficking of a protein from the site of its manufacture to the surface of a cell, for example, is possible, by the application of different antibodies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • studies
  • If confirmed in further studies with adequate follow-up, anti-SS-A/Ro-52kD antibodies might identify PBC patients with a more advanced and active disease. (mendeley.com)
  • disease
  • AIM: To investigate the frequency and significance of 'rheumatological' antinuclear antibodies in the field of autoimmune chronic liver disease, with special regard to PBC. (mendeley.com)
  • identify
  • The discovery of various proteins specific to certain cells led to the production of cell-type-specific antibodies that have been used to identify cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • There have been efforts in epitope mapping since many antibodies can bind the same epitope and levels of binding between antibodies that recognize the same epitope can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • Using this technique, it is possible to locate gene expression to specific cell types in specific regions and observe how changes in this distribution occur throughout the development and correlate with the behavioral manipulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the invention of the microscope and a technique of staining developed by Camillo Golgi, it was possible to study individual neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • In 1885 there was a German medical researcher called Franz Nissl who developed another staining technique now known by Nissl staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection method
  • Depending on the research question or the type and aim of the study, RPMA can be designed by selecting the content of the array, the number of samples, sample placement within micro-plates, array layout, type of microarrayer, correct detection antibody, signal detection method, inclusion of control and quality control of the samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Such antibodies are typically formed in response to an infection (against a given microorganism), against other foreign proteins (in response, for example, to a mismatched blood transfusion), or to one's own proteins (in instances of autoimmune disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, since RPMA can utilize whole-cell or undissected or microdissected cell lysates, it can provide direct quantifiable information concerning post translationally modified proteins that are not accessible with other high-throughput techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMAs immobilize individual purified and sometimes denatured recombinant proteins on the microarray that are screened by antibodies and other small compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundations for which ligand binding assay have been built are a result of Karl Landsteiner, in 1945, and his work on immunization of animals through the production of antibodies for certain proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This paper set the stage for the widespread use of RNA interference to turn off the expression of normal genes in mammalian systems, a centrally important cell biological technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Before analysis, the cells are usually permeabilised and treated with a fluorescent dye that stains DNA quantitatively, such as propidium iodide (PI) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). (wikipedia.org)
  • powerful
  • Although this technique is very powerful in that many sensors can be created simultaneously, it is currently only feasible for creating short DNA strands (15-25 nucleotides). (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regions and their interactions with the surrounding water have been characterized over the past several decades with x-ray reflectometry, neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. (wikipedia.org)