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  • FACS
  • Can anyone please guide me for the basic settings to be done for acquisitioning the sample on BD-FACS system for cell cycle using Propidium-Iodide method? (protocol-online.org)
  • Dyes like Hoechst33342, DRAQ5™ and Vybrant® DyeCycle allow for DNA content analysis within live samples making it possible to sort the cells by FACS for use in downstream assays on populations in specific cell cycle stages (Darzynkiewicz, 2011). (utoronto.ca)
  • B) Fucci cells transfected with pMZS3F-BORF1 and stained for the FLAG tag on BORF1 were FACS sorted into FLAG-positive and FLAG-negative cells (left) and then further separated based on the expression of mKO2-Cdt1 and AG-geminin (middle and right). (utoronto.ca)
  • C) Cell cycle stages determined from FACS analysis (as for panel B) were quantified for FLAG-positive (BORF1) and FLAG-negative cells from three independent experiments. (utoronto.ca)
  • vitro
  • 4) Then the LV-HNF4α-RNAi SGC7901 cell model was used to detect the downstream of HNF4α in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • IL11 is elevated in endometrial tumors and uterine lavage fluid in women with endometrial cancer, and alters endometrial epithelial cancer cell adhesion and migration in vitro , but its role in endometrial tumorigenesis in vivo is unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-human, but not anti-mouse, IL11Rα antibody reduced STAT3, but not ERK, activation in HEC1A cells in vitro and in endometrial tumors in xenograft mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, SKLB646 could remarkably inhibit TNBC cell migration and invasion in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro erlotinib-resistant (ER) cell models (BxPC-ER and PANC-ER) with highly constitutively active PI3K-Akt were developed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We investigated this phenomenon using three human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines and a novel in vitro cell culture apparatus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Osteosarcoma cell lines grown in vitro under elevated hydrostatic pressure, equivalent to mean in vivo IFP levels measured within central tumor regions, exhibit a more proliferative phenotype than cells grown under typical non-pressurized conditions ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • in OS specifically, higher levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) are associated with high-grade lesions and enhanced tumor cell growth in vitro ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the essential function of calretinin in mesothelioma cell lines has been demonstrated in vitro and may be an interesting target for therapeutical approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • An important consideration to remember when anlayzing live stem cell populations is that drug efflux due to the high expression or P-glycoprotein and other multi-drug resistance pumps can occur which will prevent DNA saturation and the identification of a clear cell cycle profile. (utoronto.ca)
  • As such, detection of the expression intensity of these proteins may be harnessed to determine the cell cycle profile of cell populations. (utoronto.ca)
  • In non-apoptotic fresh cell populations, there should be a minimum of unstained events. (northwestern.edu)
  • Here we report a systematic definition of how pancreatic cancer cells harboring mutant p53 respond to this combination therapy, by combining mathematical models with large-scale quantitative biologic analyses of single cells and cell populations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Often this may complicate identification of apoptotic cells if cell populations are analyzed only at a single time point e.g. after induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • observed fractional killing at a single cell level in several cell lines, even in genetically identical populations grown in homogeneous environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the satellite cell niche is relatively ill-defined and it is likely that it consists of multiple sub-populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-cell analysis allows scientists to study the properties of a single cell of interest with high accuracy, revealing individual differences among populations and offering new insights in molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Cell cycle analysis is important for cancer research. (mdpi.com)
  • We present herein a novel method for accurate cell cycle analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Cellular proliferation can also be analyzed by flow cytometry techniques based on cell cycle analysis through the measurement of DNA content. (hindawi.com)
  • Another important consideration when staining cells for this type of analysis is that cell concentrations must be consistent from sample to sample - thereby ensuring consistent saturation of DNA with the DNA binding dye. (utoronto.ca)
  • On the other hand, the dye efflux property of stem cells has been shown to be quite useful for identifying stem cells within a heterogeneous cell population through side population analysis. (utoronto.ca)
  • 2-Dimensional cell cycle analysis uses an additional parameter, such as proliferation, simultaneously with a stoichiometric DNA-binding dye to more accurately identify cells within different cell cycle stages (Darzynkiewicz and Zhao, 2014). (utoronto.ca)
  • Ki67, phosphohistone H3, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), Topoisomerase II and cyclin expression) may also be combined with a stoichiometric DNA-binding dye for increased accuracy and resolution in cell cycle analysis. (utoronto.ca)
  • Cells must be in a single cell suspension prior to any fixation and staining for cell cycle analysis as aggregates will impact your data interpretation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Coico also studied with Myron Melamed, a GSMC professor of biology and scientist with an international reputation, who had co-authored the seminal cytometry publication in Science, "Spectrophotometer: New Instruments for Ultra-rapid Cell Analysis," with Louis Kamentsky of Columbia University's IBM Watson Laboratory) and Marc E. Weksler, a professor of medicine and eventual Irving Sherwood Wright Professor of Geriatrics at Weill Cornell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis by DNA content measurement is a method that most frequently employs flow cytometry to distinguish cells in different phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before analysis, the cells are usually permeabilised and treated with a fluorescent dye that stains DNA quantitatively, such as propidium iodide (PI) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis was first described in 1969 at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory by a group from the University of California using the Feulgen staining technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first protocol for cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide staining was presented in 1975 by Awtar Krishan from Harvard Medical School and is still widely cited today. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in preparing cells for cell cycle analysis is permeabilisation of the cells' plasma membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cells and especially fixed cells tend to stick together, cell aggregates have to be excluded from analysis through a process called doublet discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flow cytometer allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flow cytometer has five main components: a flow cell, a measuring system, a detector, an amplification system, and a computer for analysis of the signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Darzynkiewicz, Z, Galkowski, D, Zhao, H. (2008) Analysis of apoptosis by cytometry using TUNEL assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though much work has been performed on the analysis of apoptotic events, little information is available to link the timing of morphological features at the cell surface and in the nucleus to the biochemical degradation of DNA in the same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MALBAC may aid in the analysis of forensic specimens, in pre-natal screening for genetic diseases, in understanding the development of reproductive cells, or in elucidating the complexity of a tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to quantify these has led to flow cytometry being used in a wide range of applications, including but not limited to: Monitoring of CD4 count in HIV Diagnosis of various cancers Analysis of aquatic microbiomes Sperm sorting Measuring telomere length Until the early 2000s, flow cytometry could only measure a few fluorescent markers at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such differences can be detected using modern single-cell analysis techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if half the cells of a particular group are expressing high levels of a given gene, and the rest are expressing low levels, results from a population-wide analysis may appear as if all cells are expressing a medium level of the given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, single-cell analysis allows researchers to study biological processes in finer detail and answer questions that could not have been addressed otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • FlowJo provides tools for the creation of: Histogram and other plot overlays Cell cycle analysis Calcium flux analysis Proliferation analysis Quantification Cluster identification and backgating display FlowJo became a commercial product in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytometer
  • A live gate is a term used for a process that prevents the acquisition by the computer of non-selected data from the flow cytometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common variation involves linking the analytical capability of the flow cytometer to a sorting device, to physically separate and thereby purify particles of interest based on their optical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquisition is mediated by a computer physically connected to the flow cytometer, and the software which handles the digital interface with the cytometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for years there has been a debate about its accuracy, due to problems in the original assay which caused necrotic cells to be inappropriately labeled as apoptotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apoptotic DNA fragmentation is being used as a marker of apoptosis and for identification of apoptotic cells either via the DNA laddering assay, the TUNEL assay, or the by detection of cells with fractional DNA content ("sub G1 cells") on DNA content frequency histograms e.g. as in the Nicoletti assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is therefore extensively used in experiments aiming to quantify the number of cells resisting drugs or other external conditions (for instance the Luria-Delbrück experiment or the gentamicin protection assay). (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis can be initiated by a myriad of different mechanisms in different cell types, and the kinetics of these events vary widely, from only a few minutes to several days depending on the cell system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data standards include the widely adopted Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) defining how data from cytometers should be stored, but also several new standards under development by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) to aid in storing more detailed information about experimental design and analytical steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • 3) We performed GC cells perturbation experiments through BI6015 (an HNF4α antagonist), AICAR (an AMPK activator), Compound C (AMPK-kinase inhibitor), metformin and BBR. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cells do not reproduce in synchrony without explicit and continual prompting (as in experiments with stalked bacteria ) and their exponential phase growth is often not ever a constant rate, but instead a slowly decaying rate, a constant stochastic response to pressures both to reproduce and to go dormant in the face of declining nutrient concentrations and increasing waste concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cell synchronization experiments, nocodazole is usually used at a concentration of 40-100 ng/mL of culture medium for a duration of 12-18 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell concentration needs to be known for many experiments in molecular biology, in order to adjust accordingly the amount of reagents and chemicals that are to be applied in the experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • this makes them the preferred counting method in fast biological experiments in which it needs to be merely determined whether a cell culture has grown as expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viewing an entire experiment in a Workspace permits organizing and managing complex cytometry experiments and produces detailed graphical reports. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • At its foundation, this technology allows researchers to observe the frequency with which mutations accumulate in single cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, it permits the detection of chromosomal abnormalities and gene copy number variations (CNVs) within and between cells, and further facilitates the detection of uncommon mutations that result in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • NF-κB is another known factor that controls cell fate, survival, and differentiation ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activated satellite cells initially proliferate as skeletal myoblasts before undergoing myogenic differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Pax7 is expressed prominently after satellite cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These dividing cells are known as the "transit amplifying pool" before undergoing myogenic differentiation to form new (post-mitotic) myotubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first roles described for IGF-1 was its involvement in the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Remarkably, effective synergy was attained even where cells exhibited an apparently functional G 2 -M surveillance mechanism, as exemplified by a lack of both overt premature CDK1 activation and S-phase mitotic entry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The concurrent measurement of cellular DNA and RNA content, or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell cycle compartments and also makes it possible to discriminate between S, G2 and mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process contains two main phases, interphase, in which the cell grows and synthesizes a copy of its DNA, and the mitotic (M) phase, during which the cell separates its DNA and divides into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules are one type of fibre which constitutes the cytoskeleton, and the dynamic microtubule network has several important roles in the cell, including vesicular transport, forming the mitotic spindle and in cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • At synergistic drug concentrations, global replication stress was a distinct indicator of chemosensitization as characterized molecularly by an accumulation of S-phase cells with high levels of hyperphosphorylated RPA-loaded single-stranded DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cells in G1Q are quiescent, temporarily withdrawn from the cell cycle (also identifiable as G0), the G1A are in the growth phase while G1B are the cells just prior entering S, with their growth (RNA and protein content, size) similar to that of the cells initiating DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their expression is also being measured by flow cytometry concurrently with the initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • EGFR inhibitor (EGFRi)-resistant cell lines were found to have significantly overexpressed AKT2 gene, total Akt, and pAkt. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, accurate measurement of gene expression in individual cells allows researchers to better understand these critical aspects of cellular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, early study of gene expression in individual cells in fruit fly embryos allowed scientists to discover regularized patterns or gradients of specific gene transcription during different stages of growth, allowing for a more detailed understanding of development at the level of location and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another phenomenon in gene expression which could only be identified at the single cell level is oscillatory gene expression, in which a gene is expressed on and off periodically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-cell gene expression is typically assayed using RNA-seq. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After complete synthesis of its DNA, the cell enters the G2 phase where it continues to grow in preparation for mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle control system is biochemically based so that the proteins of the mitosis promoting factor (MPF) control the transition from one phase to the next based on a series of checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • We demonstrated that targeted blockade of endometrial cancer epithelial cell IL11 signaling reduced primary tumor growth and impaired metastasis in ectopic and orthotopic endometrial cancer models in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we used molecular biological and other techniques to study the role and mechanisms of CLDN2 in OS cell metastasis and to identify novel targets for OS treatment and the control of early metastasis. (springermedizin.de)
  • immunohistochemistry
  • In Hirschsprung disease, calretinin immunohistochemistry offers additional diagnostic value in specimens with inadequate amount of submucosa and rarely seen ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • citation needed] There are nuclei staining dyes that allow for viability of cells after staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • After several cell divisions, the satellite cells begin to fuse with the damaged myotubes and undergo further differentiations and maturation, with peripheral nuclei as in hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • biotechnology
  • In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases of the cell cycle
  • The cellular DNA content of individual cells is often plotted as their frequency histogram to provide information about relative frequency (percentage) of cells in the major phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surprisingly, the authors found that each of the agents was able to induce apoptosis in all phases of the cell cycle, suggesting that the mechanism through which the drugs induce apoptosis may be independent of the drugs' biochemical targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992). "The induction of apoptosis by chemotherapeutic agents occurs in all phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can either self-renew or differentiate into various types of cells of the blood lineage. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between Notch signaling and self-renewal capacity in FA hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) constitute a rare cell population that can either self-renew or differentiate into various types of mature blood cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells represent the oldest known adult stem cell niche, and are involved in the normal growth of muscle, as well as regeneration following injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • During this transition the cell makes decisions to become quiescent (enter G0), differentiate, make DNA repairs, or proliferate based on environmental cues and molecular signaling inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, both quiescent and activated human satellite cells can be identified by the membrane-bound neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM/CD56/Leu-19), a cell-surface glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 and Myf5 markers specifically define the majority of quiescent satellite cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When muscle cells undergo injury, quiescent satellite cells are released from beneath the basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • fraction
  • The fraction of cells in the G2M-phase of the cell cycle was higher in ACF compared to the normal mucosa of control rats. (unifi.it)
  • In a fraction of these cells, persistent genomic damage was observed, including chromosomal fragmentation with a loss of centromeric regions that prevented proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fractional kill hypothesis states that a defined chemotherapy concentration, applied for a defined time period, will kill a constant fraction of the cells in a population, independent of the absolute number of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In solid tumors, poor access of the tumor to the drug can limit the fraction of tumor cells killed, but the validity of the fractional kill hypothesis has also been established in animal models of leukemia, as well as in human leukemia and lymphoma, where drug access is less of an issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because only a fraction of the cells die with each treatment, repeated doses must be administered to continue to reduce the size of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurements of cell viability, i.e. measuring and calculating the fraction of dead and live cells, for example of cells exposed to poison. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper ruled out the conventional explanation (cell cycle effects) in two of these cell lines, and provided evidence supporting the hypothesis that random variation in cellular initial conditions causes some cells to die while allowing others to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • In an interview for "The Life Scientific" (aired on 13/12/2011) hosted by Jim Al-Khalili, R. Timothy Hunt explained that the name "cyclin" was originally named after his hobby cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. Timothy Hunt: "By the way, the name cyclin, which I coined, was really a joke, it's because I liked cycling so much at the time, but they did come and go in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in level through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cyclin binds to Cdk, Cdk becomes activated and phosphorylates serine and threonine on other proteins causing the activation and degradation of other proteins allowing the cell to transition through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, an inhibitor, protein Slc-1, is present that interacts with the dimer so that the S phase cyclin-Cdk dimer remains inactive until the cell is ready to move into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cell has grown and is ready to synthesize DNA, G1 cyclin-Cdks phosphorylate the S phase cyclin inhibitor signaling ubiquitination, resulting in the addition of groups to the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitination of the inhibitor signals the SCF/proteasome to degrade the inhibitor releasing and allowing the S phase cyclin-Cdk to become activated and the cell moves into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • Apoptotic DNA fragmentation is a key feature of apoptosis, a type of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that lack ICAD or that express caspase-resistant mutant ICAD thus do not show DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, although they do exhibit some other features of apoptosis and die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the internucleosomal fragmentation of genomic DNA to regular repeating oligonucleosomal fragments generated by Ca/Mg-dependent endonuclease is accepted as one of the best-characterized biochemical markers of apoptosis (programmed cell death). (wikipedia.org)
  • Six years passed from 1972 to 1978/1980 until the discovery and evaluation of internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA during apoptotic cell death as a hallmark of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • Cell counts within liquid media (such as blood, plasma, lymph, or laboratory rinsate) are usually expressed as a number of cells per unit of volume, thus expressing a concentration (for example, 5,000 cells per milliliter). (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Flow cytometry is routinely used in the diagnosis of health disorders, especially blood cancers, but has many other applications in basic research, clinical practice and clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • If above troubleshooting categories do not improve your data, consider utilizing a nuclear cell preparation - see protocols below . (northwestern.edu)
  • Degradation of nuclear DNA into nucleosomal units is one of the hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darzynkiewicz
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK293T
  • HEK293T cells co-stained with DAPI and EdU-Alexa 647 DNA binding dyes for the specific identification of cells in S-phase versus G1 or G2M cell cycle phases. (utoronto.ca)
  • The human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293T) cells, the human OS cell lines, U2OS and Saos2, and human fetal-osteoblast cell line, hFOB.1.19 were used in this study were purchased from Shanghai Cell Bank of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (springermedizin.de)
  • regardless
  • If a cell passes through the G1/S transition the cell will continue through the cell cycle regardless of incoming mitogenic factors due to the positive feed-back loop of G1-S transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • citation needed] A concentration of 0.1-12 µg/ml is commonly used to stain DNA in bacteria or eukaryote cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • dyes
  • In addition, some dyes such as PI are not DNA-specific and will stain other double stranded nucleic acids such as RNA - therefore, when using PI, incubation of cells with RNase is necessary. (utoronto.ca)
  • Cell viability can also be determined if viability dyes are added to the fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • The actual rate of this growth (i.e. the slope of the line in the figure) depends upon the growth conditions, which affect the frequency of cell division events and the probability of both daughter cells surviving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current chemotherapy regimens apply drug treatment in cycles, with the frequency and duration of treatments limited by toxicity to the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Together, our results suggested a "foot-in-the-door" mechanism for drug synergy where cells were destroyed not by frank G 2 -M phase abrogation but rather by initiating a cumulative genotoxicity that deregulated DNA synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the lag phase of the bacterial growth cycle, synthesis of RNA, enzymes and other molecules occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with most processes in the body, the cell cycle is highly regulated to prevent the synthesis of mutated cells and uncontrolled cell division that leads to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytarabine, a DNA-synthesis inhibitor also known as ara-C, is cited as the classic cell cycle phase-specific agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy dosing schedules have been optimized based on the fact that cytarabine is only expected to be effective in the DNA synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • For this type of exponential growth, plotting the natural logarithm of cell number against time produces a straight line. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • Measuring the differences and the rate of change in DNA content at the single-cell level can help scientists better understand how pathogens develop antibiotic resistance, why the immune system often cannot produce antibodies for rapidly mutating viruses like HIV, and other important phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • We further tested this method using the clinical anticancer agents crizotinib and taxol, and the results clearly illustrated that crizotinib and taxol arrested Jurkat cells in G0 and M phase, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • The method has subsequently been improved dramatically and if performed correctly should only identify cells in the last phase of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of single cell sequencing has a vast number of applications, many of which have yet to be exploited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this method can be time consuming, it gives an accurate estimate of the number of viable cells (because only they will be able to grow and form visible colonies). (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Another standard cell biological application of nocodazole is to induce the formation of Golgi ministacks in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • After onset of arthritis, mice were treated with soluble TNFR-Fc for 10 d and the production of IL-17 and IFNγ by LN cells was determined by ELISA. (rupress.org)
  • Proteins
  • T-cell receptor T3 delta chain Monoclonal detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Survivin, like the others, was discovered by its structural homology to IAP family of proteins in human B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, if the fluorescent proteins bind to static cell receptors, the rate of recovery will be retarded by a factor related to the association and disassociation coefficients of binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the only dynamics considered are diffusion and binding/unbinding interactions, however, in principle proteins can also move via flow, i.e., undergo directed motion, and this was recognized very early by Axelrod et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle control system is biochemically based so that the proteins of the mitosis promoting factor (MPF) control the transition from one phase to the next based on a series of checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cyclin binds to Cdk, Cdk becomes activated and phosphorylates serine and threonine on other proteins causing the activation and degradation of other proteins allowing the cell to transition through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological staining is also used to mark cells in flow cytometry, and to flag proteins or nucleic acids in gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced predominantly by T helper cells (Th17 cells) and, although there is controversy over the signals required for the differentiation of murine and human Th17 cells, both murine and human CD4 + Th17 T cells require IL-23 for their proliferation and maintenance ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cell Proliferation 28: 571-579. (wikipedia.org)
  • FlowJo provides tools for the creation of: Histogram and other plot overlays Cell cycle analysis Calcium flux analysis Proliferation analysis Quantification Cluster identification and backgating display FlowJo became a commercial product in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALL emerges when a single lymphoblast gains many mutations to genes that affect blood cell development and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then permeabilized to allow target accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The survivin protein is expressed highly in most human tumours and fetal tissue, but is completely absent in terminally differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a method for determining the kinetics of diffusion through tissue or cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stains may be used to define and examine bulk tissues (highlighting, for example, muscle fibers or connective tissue), cell populations (classifying different blood cells, for instance), or organelles within individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By causing certain cells or structures to take on contrasting colour(s), their form (morphology) or position within a cell or tissue can be readily seen and studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fixation-which may itself consist of several steps-aims to preserve the shape of the cells or tissue involved as much as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • In solid tumors, poor access of the tumor to the drug can limit the fraction of tumor cells killed, but the validity of the fractional kill hypothesis has also been established in animal models of leukemia, as well as in human leukemia and lymphoma, where drug access is less of an issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo determination of the fractional kill of human tumor cells by chemotherapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • This technique is very useful in biological studies of cell membrane diffusion and protein binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • It provides information that can be interpreted into many underlying biological processes as explained in the section "Living Cells Imaging" here below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transparent objects, like living biological cells, are traditionally viewed in a phase contrast microscope or in a differential interference contrast microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • These functional Golgi ministacks remain distributed about the cell, unable to track forward to form a perinuclear Golgi since nocodazole has depolymerized the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • discriminate
  • These data suggest survivin might provide a new target for cancer therapy that would discriminate between transformed and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • also grew simple human cells in a dish that were designed to react specifically to the bad forms of tau. (elifesciences.org)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The absence of microtubule attachment to kinetochores activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, causing the cell to arrest in prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The fractional kill hypothesis states that a defined chemotherapy concentration, applied for a defined time period, will kill a constant fraction of the cells in a population, independent of the absolute number of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration around 5 mM in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ocean, the concentration of picoplankton is 105-107 cells per millilitre of ocean water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules
  • Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect in cells by interfering with the polymerization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, nocodazole has been shown to decrease the oncogenic potential of cancer cells via another microtubules-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could be due to flow of the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm, or transport along filaments in the cell such as microtubules by molecular motors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In this context, it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, staining can also reveal where certain chemicals or specific chemical reactions are taking place within cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • probes
  • It is capable of quantifying the two dimensional lateral diffusion of a molecularly thin film containing fluorescently labeled probes, or to examine single cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • After the cell has grown and is ready to synthesize DNA, G1 cyclin-Cdks phosphorylate the S phase cyclin inhibitor signaling ubiquitination, resulting in the addition of groups to the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, cells may be grown directly on a slide. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • Finally, although TNF blockade increased numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells in LN, it inhibited their accumulation in the joint, thereby providing an explanation for the paradox that anti-TNF therapy ameliorates arthritis despite increasing numbers of pathogenic T cells. (rupress.org)
  • molecules
  • Generally, interactions between GSH and other molecules with higher relative electrophilicity deplete GSH levels within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally, the FRAP technique was intended for use as a mean to characterize the mobility of individual lipid molecules within a cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification
  • Unless recognized as such the G0/G1 doublets would contribute to false positive identification and count of G2/M cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A safranin counterstain is applied that stains all cells, allowing identification of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), the precursor whose detection offers certain advantages over BrdU, has now become the preferred methodology do detect DNA replicating (S-phase) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the cell does not want S phase cyclins to become active in G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • He described the cytoplasmic DNA isolated from mouse liver cells after culture as characterized by DNA fragments with a molecular weight consisting of multiples of 135 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescent
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • It can be done intentionally by laboratory personnel or by cells, or can occur spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes, in turn, increase the risk that more mutations will occur in developing lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • excessive
  • The excessive immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow interfere with the production of new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (wikipedia.org)