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  • FLS2
  • Chinchilla D., Zipfel C., Robatzek S., Kemmerling B., Nürnberger T., Jones J.D.G., Felix G. & Boller T. 2007 A flagellin-induced complex of the receptor FLS2 and BAK1 initiates plant defence, Nature 448, 497-500. (wikipedia.org)
  • A targeted approach generated amino acid variation at FLS2 residues in a region previously implicated in flagellin recognition. (osti.gov)
  • From this pool, we then identified five alleles of FLS2 that confer modest (quantitatively partial) recognition of an Erwinia amylovora flagellin peptide. (osti.gov)
  • Use of this Erwinia -based flagellin peptide to stimulate Arabidopsis plants expressing the resulting FLS2 alleles did not lead to a detectable reduction of virulent P. syringae pv. (osti.gov)
  • Even so, further studies have shown a second FLS gene known as FLS2 that is also associated with flagellin reception. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is in this region, which is the amino-terminus, where it is said to have direct interaction with flagellin initiating the response of FLS2 to flg22. (wikipedia.org)
  • One experiment performed to show involvement of FLS2 in flagellin perception was an ectopic expression of FLS2 using the CaMV 35S gene promotor in one wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plant and two supposed mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discovered by the ectopic expression of FLS2 study , FLS2 is directed related to flagellin perception, so by discovery and by natural way of the plant, FLS2 is the gene responsible for perception of flagellin which signals a plant defense response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like EFR, FLS2 (flagellin-sensing 2) is a plant receptor-like kinase that acts as a PRR in the plant innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • flg22
  • In addition, a 22-amino acid sequence (flg22) of the conserved N-terminal part of flagellin is known to activate plant defence mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary screen tested for elevated response to the canonical flagellin peptide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa , flg22. (osti.gov)
  • In this experiment, callose deposition and production of active oxygen species were the variables considered to show flagellin perception after treatment of flg22 as indicated by previous research (Gomez-Gomez, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Using a variety of biochemical, cell biological and physiological techniques we show here that flagellin transcytosis occurs by a transcellular pathway mediated by vesicular trafficking and is dependent upon the function of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2. (biologists.org)
  • antigens
  • The location of the HA2-2(76-130) peptide's insertion into the hypervariable domain of flagellin had a significant effect on the T-cell response to influenza antigens, as seen by forming of multi-cytokine-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. (springer.com)
  • strains
  • As a result of their inability to transcytose flagellin, apical colonization by SPI-2 mutants induced substantially less epithelial IL-8 secretion than wild-type strains suggesting that such SPI-2 mediated transcytosis of flagellin plays a role in the pathogenesis of the mucosal inflammation characteristic of human Salmonellosis. (biologists.org)
  • Pathogenic E. coli strains can be categorized based on elements that can elicit an immune response in animals, namely: O antigen: part of lipopolysaccharide layer K antigen: capsule H antigen: flagellin For example, E. coli strain EDL933 is of the O157:H7 group. (wikipedia.org)
  • flagellar
  • The structure of flagellin is responsible for the helical shape of the flagellar filament, which is important for its proper function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 41 kD flagellin of Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) is a major component of periplasmic flagellar filament core and a good candidate for serodiagnosis in early stage of Lyme disease. (hindawi.com)
  • innate
  • Flagellin might play a key role in up-regulating the host innate defences against urinary tract infections (UTIs), says a new study by British researchers. (medindia.net)
  • A new study by British scientists reveals that motile Escherichia coli isolates demonstrated significant activation of NF-kB signaling suggesting that flagellin plays a key role in up-regulating the host innate defences against urinary tract infections (UTIs). (uroweb.org)
  • Flagellin is a potent activator of a broad range of cell types that are involved in innate and adaptive immunity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • lipopolysaccharide
  • Stimulation of USSCs with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin resulted in a marked increase of interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-8 production although levels differed significantly between both stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, vesicles isolated from S. typhimurium -infected epithelia were highly enriched in flagellin. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, such SPI-2 mutants were unable to mediate the localization of flagellin into intracellular vesicles consistent with flagellin transcytosis mediated by a S. typhimurium take-over of host vesicle trafficking pathways. (biologists.org)
  • flaB
  • We report a novel method of cancer immunotherapy using an attenuated S. typhimurium strain engineered to secrete Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) in tumor tissues.Previously, we developed an attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, which is defective in ppGpp synthesis (ΔppGpp S. typhimurium), and manifested significantly increased LD50 by 100,000 to 1,000,000-fold. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mutations
  • Human B-cell epitope analysis showed that thirteen of 15 nonsynonymous mutations occurred in the epitope region of 41 kD flagellin and thirty of 42 B-cell epitopes were altered due to all 13 nonsynonymous mutations in the epitope region, which may affect the function of the antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • viral
  • To extend these observations and study the role of flagellin in the complete viral replicative lifecycle, we studied human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in T cells. (bham.ac.uk)
  • inflammatory
  • However, accumulating evidence has implicated flagellin in the occurrence of some inflammatory diseases, such as acute lung inflammation, cardiovascular collapse and inflammatory bowel disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • increases
  • Flagellin augments HIV-1 entry and promoter activity and increases the production of extracellular virus. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The insertion of HA2-2(76-130) into the hypervariable domain of flagellin greatly increases antigen-specific T-cell response, as evidenced by the formation of multi-cytokine-secreting CD4+, CD8+ T-cells, Tem, and Tcm. (springer.com)
  • shown
  • USSCs were differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage for 6 to 14 days in the absence (-) or presence of TLR agonists (LPS, flagellin or polyI: C). ALP and ARS stainings of 6, 7 and 8 days differentiated USSCs are shown. (nih.gov)