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  • thick filament
  • Myosin drives the system, forming a thick filament made up of numerous motors which 'grab' onto, bind to and slide past the thinner actin filaments during contraction. (researchsea.com)
  • This left a puzzle since the myosin motors in resting muscle lie in a helical array on the surface of the thick filament ( Figure 87a ), and it was not known how they sense the structure of the thin filament. (esrf.eu)
  • However when the load is high, these motors generate a stress in the backbone of the thick filament which triggers a change in the packing of the myosin tails to one with a slightly longer periodicity along the filament axis ( Figure 88c ). (esrf.eu)
  • This intrinsic mechanical switch in the thick filament is the gearbox of muscle, enabling it to mobilise only a few myosin molecules when the external load is low at very low metabolic cost, and then switching on many more motors when they are needed to work against a high load. (esrf.eu)
  • At high load (c), force generated by constitutively ON motors (green) switches the thick filament to a slightly longer axial periodicity, releasing the remaining motors. (esrf.eu)
  • In addition to the well-established structural change in the thin filaments controlled by calcium, a mechano-sensitive structural switch in the thick filament links muscle performance to its external load. (esrf.eu)
  • Stimulation
  • To investigate the potential impact of topiramate on muscle contraction , phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used as an NMJ model and the effects of topiramate and phenytoin (as a control) on the muscle twitch response to electrical stimulation were comparatively evaluated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • structural
  • Synchrotron X‐rays with high brilliance are an indispensable tool for muscle structural research. (els.net)
  • However, compared to native filaments, phalloidin-stabilized filaments were stiffer and yielded subtle but significant structural changes. (rupress.org)
  • muscular
  • The proposed in-silico model enables the study of biologically relevant process in the muscle contraction process, also in the case of muscular diseases, with reasonable computational effort. (springer.com)
  • cardiac muscle
  • Capelo A, Comincioli V, Minelli R, Poggesi C, Reggiani C, Ricciardi L (1981) Study and parameters identification of a rheological model for excised quiescent cardiac muscle. (springer.com)
  • Only one tissue specific isoform of TnI is described for cardiac muscle tissue (cTnI) and this is expressed only in myocardium. (novusbio.com)
  • exerts
  • When the weight of an object exerts a load on the filaments - for example, when you try to lift something up - the muscles must contract, requiring the protein motors to generate a force opposite to the load. (researchsea.com)
  • characteristics
  • Because the dynamic balance between microtubule extension and actin contraction also regulates cell fate decisions and stem cell characteristics, disrupting this cytoskeletal balance could yield unexpected effects beyond tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • nervous system
  • This muscle type is innervated by the somatic nervous system and is, therefore, normally voluntarily contractible. (lecturio.com)
  • Smooth muscles, which are located in all inner organs, are innervated through the vegetative nervous system and are, therefore, not voluntarily contractible. (lecturio.com)
  • diffraction
  • X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with an image plate detector (see Wakabayashi and Amemiya, ) at the small‐angle X‐ray scattering/diffraction beamline of the Photon Factory (Japan). (els.net)
  • High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with a CCD detector at the BioCAT beamline of the Advanced Photon Sources (USA). (els.net)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded from single muscle cells ( Figure 87b ) while they were stimulated electrically under conditions whereby the length and load on the muscle cell could be controlled precisely. (esrf.eu)
  • frog
  • Edman KAP, Reggiani C (1985) Differences in maximum velocity of shortening along single muscle fibres of the frog. (springer.com)
  • nerve
  • The functions of the skeletal system, the structure and classification of bone, histology of bone, the blood and nerve supply of bone, and intramembranous and endochondral ossification. (sckool.org)
  • high spatial
  • The very high brilliance and collimation of the X-ray beam combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of the 2D X-ray detectors overcame the major technical challenge of these experiments: to record X-ray signals from a single muscle cell on the millisecond timescale with very high spatial resolution. (esrf.eu)