Loading...
  • embryos
  • The attempt to clone argali (mountain sheep) did not produce viable embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reprogramming process that cells need to go through during cloning is not perfect and embryos produced by nuclear transfer often show abnormal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell specific localization miRNAs in blastocysts and expression profiling of embryos and placentas at different developmental stages identified that the major deregulation of miRNAs exhibited in placentas at day 50 of pregnancies is found to be less dependent on global DNA methylation, rather than on aberrant miRNA biogenesis molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specially, genomic imprinting was found to be less or not dependent on DNA methylation for its somatic maintenance in placentas than in the embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of in vitro production and in vitro development of cloned sheep embryos by the two techniques. (deepdyve.com)
  • 05). It was inferred that HMC technique provides a cost‐effective and efficient method of in vitro production of cloned sheep embryos with a comparatively simpler technique with a possibility of automation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Vector injection into the perivitelline space has emerged as the standard delivery method to transduce lentivirus to mammalian oocytes or one-cell embryos, but its application is limited by the need for high titers of lentivirus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, murine embryos of Ryukyu mouse (Mus caroli) will survive to term inside the uterus of a house mouse (Mus musculus) only if enveloped in Mus musculus trophoblast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are cultured from the embryoblast 4-5 days after fertilization, harvesting them is most often done from donated embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belgium bans reproductive cloning but allows therapeutic cloning of embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • In this review, we aim to outline some of the variations in nuclear shapes seen in different cell types (predominantly human or mammalian, but not entirely ignoring the rest of the eukaryotic world). (springer.com)
  • genes
  • This involves an erasure of the gene expression program of the respective donor cell and the establishment of the well-orchestrated sequence of expression of an estimated number of 10 000-12 000 genes regulating embryonic and foetal development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • We detected 1,711 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two groups, of which 243 genes also changed methylation level in the abnormal cloned piglets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For some genes it may be possible to enrich for targeted clones using immunological and flow sorting-based screens. (expertsmind.com)
  • While the efficiency of cloning still remains low [ 21 ] a complete swine genome will enhance the identification and modification of genes that are relevant to human disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a complex and dynamic organelle within a eukaryotic cell, subject to layers of regulation and imposing its own effects onto the cell it lies within and the genes that lie within it. (springer.com)
  • Viruses humans , other cells, Other Gene Transfer Mechanisms What' sNEW Viruses today spread genes among bacteria as they always have. (mouthdrillers.info)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The combination of somatic cell gene targeting and nuclear transfer provides a powerful method to produce transgenic animals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Gene-targeted BFFs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We report the production of cloned cows carrying human lysozyme gene knock-in β-casein locus using ZFNs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The demonstration that fully differentiated cells can reverse their gene expression profile to that of a pluripotent cell, and the successful derivation and culture of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have fuelled hopes for applications in regenerative medicine. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The abnormal cloned piglets showed substantial changes both in the DNAm and the gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A serious limitation if the gene is not expressed in the cell type being targeted. (expertsmind.com)
  • In a somatic cell there are two copies of each autosomal gene, only one of which will be targeted. (expertsmind.com)
  • Recent work has shown that regulation of gene expression can be influenced by nuclear morphology, and that cells can drastically remodel their chromatin during differentiation. (springer.com)
  • The crucial difference was that in creating Polly and Molly, scientists used cells into which a new gene had been inserted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene chosen was a therapeutic protein to demonstrate the potential of such recombinant DNA technology combined with animal cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • These animals were transfected but contained a marker gene not the cloned gene of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction enzymes can be introduced into cells, for use in gene editing or for genome editing in situ, a technique known as genome editing with engineered nucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because this activity can vary depending on the species, cell type, target gene, and nuclease used, it should be monitored when designing new systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene segments result in the generation of antibody repertoire during development and maturation of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of B cells, the immunoglobulin gene undergoes sequences of rearrangements that lead to formation of the antibody repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the lymphoid cell, a partial rearrangement of the heavy-chain gene occurs which is followed by complete rearrangement of heavy-chain gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final rearrangement of the light chain gene generates immature B cell and mIgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearrangement and organization of these gene segments during the maturation of B cells produce functional proteins.The entire process of rearrangement and organization of these gene segments is the vital source where our body immune system gets its capabilities to recognize and respond to variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, the assortment of these gene segments occurs at B cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the fact that the modified cells are selected prior to NT means that all the animals born are transgenic (as compared to 5~1O% by conventional transgenesis) and their gender is entirely predictable. (expertsmind.com)
  • To assess the role of the ectopic CD40L expression in development of SLE, we have established transgenic mice expressing CD40L on B cells. (jove.com)
  • bone marrow
  • The mature B cell formed as RNA processing changes leaves the bone marrow and is stimulated by the antigen then differentiated into IgM -secreted plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. (pnas.org)
  • Handmade cloning (HMC) technique has been applied as efficient and cost‐effective alternative in many livestock species. (deepdyve.com)
  • readers should bear in mind that cell types and shapes may also differ between species. (springer.com)
  • The remaining inner cell mass can be injected into a blastocele of the recipient species to acquire its trophoblastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs in the somatic cells of some animals, such as goldfish, salmon, and salamanders, but is especially common among ferns and flowering plants (see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), including both wild and cultivated species. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • The cloning technology provides an opportunity to improve livestock production efficiency and to create genetic modifications in pigs for agriculture and medicine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Boran cattle bull was cloned at the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • In recent years, seeing the research opportunities that China's lax regulations provide, many expatriate Chinese scientists from the West are returning to China to establish stem cell research centers and laboratories there. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cloned male buffalo calf Shresth was born in 2010 at the NDRI In May 2010, Got became the first cloned Spanish Fighting Bull, cloned by Spanish scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Targeted cells for NT experiments are derived from a single selected cell, which is subsequently clonally expanded to provide cells for NT and sufficient DNA to confirm that the targeting has been successful. (expertsmind.com)
  • Some mice experiments indicate an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 helper cells with a predominance of Th1 cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other mice experiments indicate that an immune response towards xeno-fetuses does not belong to classical cytotoxic T lymphocyte or natural killer cell pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identical
  • Identical twins are the obvious examples, but perhaps more intriguing are armadillos, in which the offspring in a litter are all clones derived from one zygote ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained: Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem-cell
  • The laws and policies regarding stem cell research in the People's Republic of China are relatively relaxed in comparison to that of other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • American scientific journals Science and Nature have both reported in recent years that China's stem cell programs hold potential, and in 2004 a delegation from Britain's Department of Trade and Industry concluded more emphatically that Chinese research in the field was already world-class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Funding for stem cell research by the Chinese government is extremely limited compared to Western nations, with the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology planning to devote between US$33 million and US$132 million on stem cell research during the next 5 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, the state of California alone has earmarked US$3 billion to fund stem cell research at California institutions during the next decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • On January 10, 2012 it was announced that China will halt new applications for clinical trials of stem-cell products until July 1 as part of a year-long campaign to regulate the development of the industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps more importantly, the cultural and national attitude on stem cell research differs greatly between China and the West. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell research in China thus is unlikely ever to be prone to the intense moral politicking that characterizes the field in the West. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from this it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feed back mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell laws are the law rules, and policy governance concerning the sources, research, and uses in treatment of stem cells in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common example of a stem cell is the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells of the blood lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell treatments are a type of cell therapy that introduce new cells into adult bodies for possible treatment of cancer, somatic cell nuclear transfer, diabetes, and other medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union has yet to issue consistent regulations with respect to stem cell research in member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany has restrictive policies for stem cell research, but a 2008 law authorizes "the use of imported stem cell lines produced before May 1, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Kingdom is one of the leaders in stem cell research, in the opinion of Lord Sainsbury, Science and Innovation Minister for the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new £10 million stem cell research centre has been announced at the University of Cambridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficiencies
  • Therefore, fewer animals are used overall, even with the relatively low efficiencies of the cloning procedure. (expertsmind.com)
  • Given the relatively low efficiencies of targeting currently available, even with powerful targeting strategies, a relatively large number of candidate clones must be screened. (expertsmind.com)
  • abnormal
  • Some cloned piglets in our study showed abnormal phenotypes such as large tongue (longer and thicker), weak muscles, and exomphalos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of the methylomes revealed that abnormal cloned piglets suffered more hypomethylation than hypermethylation compared to the normal cloned piglets, although the DNAm level in the CpG Island was higher in the abnormal cloned piglets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division, either during mitosis, or commonly during metaphase I in meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Studies of chromosome and genome biology often focus on condensed chromatin in the form of chromosomes and neglect the non-dividing cells. (springer.com)