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  • placental
  • Thus, placenta de-phosphorylates IGFBP-1 as a result of PLAP activity, and this requires its binding to the tissue.To investigate factors which may affect the activity of PLAP, placental explants (n=3 for each series of experiments) were incubated with pIGFBP-1 in the presence of insulin, IGF-I/-II or under hyperglycemic or hypoxic conditions. (bl.uk)
  • Placental PLAP expression/ex-vivo activity and total IGFBP-1 levels in maternal serum were unaltered in diabetes and did not relate to fetal growth in either diabetes or control groups. (bl.uk)
  • Conclusions: The hypothesis that activated PLAP and therefore enhanced IGFBP-1 de-phosphorylation may increase the effect of IGF-I on placental cell turnover and accelerate fetal growth in diabetes was not supported by the results of this study. (bl.uk)
  • To bypass placental transport, singleton fetal sheep were intravenously infused with an amino acid mixture (AA, n = 8) or saline [control (Con), n = for ∼12 days during late gestation. (physiology.org)
  • These questions become particularly relevant when testing interventions that might improve fetal growth after chronic exposure to placental insufficiency and improve organ-specific sensitivity to nutrients and hormones (e.g., insulin) later in life. (physiology.org)
  • IGF2
  • We have found that the expression of paternally expressing insulin-like growth factor 2 ( IGF2 ), its receptor IGF2R , and the IGF2 / IGF1R ratio in CVS tissues significantly correlate with crown-rump length and birthweight, whereas term placenta expression shows no correlation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • gestation
  • Similarly, supplementation of pregnant sheep with intravenous amino acids for several days at the end of gestation demonstrated adverse fetal effects, including hypoxia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • pathways
  • There are 2 distinct arms downstream of the TGF-β superfamily ligands-the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways-and these 2 responses can oppose one another's effects, most notably in disease states. (jaoa.org)
  • kinase
  • Activation of the small GTP binding proteins leads to modulation of serine/threonine kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although we find that p110α is necessary for insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB (protein kinase B) in several cell lines, we find that this is not the case in HepG2 hepatoma cells. (biochemj.org)
  • In this study, we examined the role of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaM-K) cascade in transcriptional activation of insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CaM-KIVc alone was sufficient, and the upstream kinase, CaM-KK, was enhanced to upregulate the insulin promoter activity in INS-1 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This effect of calcium is completely blocked by exposure to a Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaM-K) inhibitor ( 10 ) and thus suggests that the actions of calcium on the insulin gene are mediated in part by Ca 2+ /CaM-Ks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There are two multifunctional CaM-Ks, named CaM-KI and -IV, which are activated by an upstream CaM-K kinase (CaM-KK) through phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the active loop of the protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • livers
  • We postulate that ALF results from excessive reactivation of a fetal liver programme that is induced in hepatocytes when acutely injured livers regenerate. (bmj.com)
  • Results Livers of patients with ALF were massively enriched with hepatocytes expressing IGF2BP3, YAP1 and other fetal markers. (bmj.com)
  • Less extensive, transient accumulation of similar fetal-like cells that were proliferative and capable of anchorage-independent growth occurred in mouse livers that were regenerating after acute injury. (bmj.com)
  • We demonstrated that livers of patients with ALF are massively repopulated with fetal-appearing hepatocytes, characterised these cells, and showed that smaller numbers of similar cells transiently accumulate in mouse livers that are regenerating effectively after acute injury. (bmj.com)
  • We discovered that the accumulation of fetal-like hepatocytes in injured livers is controlled by injury-related activation of Yes-associated protein-1 and Insulin-like growth factor-2 RNA-binding protein-3, two fetal factors that are normally silenced in healthy adult hepatocytes. (bmj.com)
  • gestational
  • previous attempts to improve fetal outcomes with use of maternal high-protein supplementation have actually increased the risk for small-for-gestational-age birth and infant mortality ( 26 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) refers to rupture of the fetal membranes prior to the onset of labor ( 1 ) and can occur at any gestational age even at 42nd week. (biomedsearch.com)
  • modulate
  • Thyroid hormones are involved in regulating various physiological functions and pathological processes in the body, including changes in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and lipids, influence cell proliferation and development, and modulate response to other hormones [ 1-3 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, insulin promotes survival of fetal chick forebrain neurons concomitant with inhibition of p38 in the absence of an effect on ERK and JNK activity ( Heidenreich and Kummer, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • predominant
  • Recent genetic knock-in and pharmacological approaches have suggested that, of class IA PI3Ks (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases), it is the p110α isoform (PIK3CA) that plays the predominant role in insulin signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • differentially
  • Conclusion After acute liver injury, hepatocytes are reprogrammed to fetal-like cells by a YAP1-dependent mechanism that differentially regulates let7 and IGF2BP3, identifying novel therapeutic targets for ALF. (bmj.com)
  • accumulation
  • Immunostaining of Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) and Oil Red O was used to observe the accumulation of muscle glycogen and lipid in the fetal rat. (bioscirep.org)
  • physiological
  • Binoux M, Roghani M, Hossenlopp P, Hardoain S, Gourmelen M (1991) Molecular forms of human IGF binding proteins: physiological implications. (springer.com)
  • isoforms
  • We have used isoform-selective inhibitors of class IA PI3K to dissect further the roles of individual p110 isoforms in insulin signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • These results provide evidence that p110β and p110δ can play a role in insulin signalling and also provide the first evidence that there can be functional redundancy between p110 isoforms. (biochemj.org)
  • Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms that may undergo similar processing to generate mature protein. (origene.com)