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  • embryo
  • The half egg lacking a nucleus is fused with a donor somatic cell and the fused egg half is fused again with a second enucleate half egg before it is activated (with a mild electric shock) to produce an embryo that is then implanted in a surrogate mother . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The egg divides and multiplies, and within five or six days it develops into an embryo shaped like a hollow sphere. (stabroeknews.com)
  • Through an epigenetic process not yet understood, the egg resets genetic switches inside the donor nucleus, directing its 6 ft of coiled DNA to stop acting like that of a skin cell and start acting like that of an embryo. (geneimprint.com)
  • In this issue of Celebrate Life, I will explain embryonic stem cell technology, where the stem cells are derived, in a variation of ways, from the developing human embryo. (clmagazine.org)
  • The resultant embryo grows for the next five days to a blastocyst, which is a hollow ball of around 120 cells with a concentration of cells at one pole called the inner cell mass. (clmagazine.org)
  • The embryologist uses micro-instruments to dissect the inner cell mass from the rest of the embryo and the cells are then disaggregated and placed on top of further "feeder cells" (usually of animal origin) in another dish. (clmagazine.org)
  • An adult cell from the patient is then introduced into the egg and it is artificially stimulated to divide, resulting in a growing embryo which is a clone of the patient. (clmagazine.org)
  • This is the artificial activation of an egg to begin developing as an embryo without any fertilization or the introduction of an adult cell. (clmagazine.org)
  • They have lost the ability to differentiate to all cell types needed for a complete embryo development, but they still have the potential to differentiate to any other cell type (up to day 14th post-fertilization). (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • They are derived from the primordial germ cells, which occur in a specific part of the embryo/fetus called the gonadal ridge. (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Through cloning, it is possible to control the number of chromosomes to avoid abnormalities as it starts off with a normal cell that has "the proper amount of chromosomes" (Kolata, 1998, p. 239). (humancloning.org)
  • Humans have 46 chromosomes, arranged in pairs in every living cell of our bodies. (kidshealth.org)
  • This newly formed combination of chromosomes then copies itself again and again during fetal growth and development, passing identical genetic information to each new cell in the growing fetus. (kidshealth.org)
  • Shettles, a physician, who specialized in obstetrics and gynecology, found a difference in the size and shape of male sperm cells that he correlated with the different sex chromosomes they carry. (asu.edu)
  • You then take a complete cell which contains both male and female chromosomes-all of our cells do, apart from the gonads. (scientificamerican.com)
  • nuclei
  • Cytoplasmic factors present in mature, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes have a unique ability to reset the identity of transplanted somatic cell nuclei to the embryonic state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Strides made in the past few years point to proteins that bind and wrap DNA into chromatin, the scrunched-up threads located in cell nuclei. (geneimprint.com)
  • clone
  • The production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology . (wikipedia.org)
  • transplant
  • The study team concludes that focusing on transplant techniques that avoid the maternal immune response may allow scientists to take advantage of fetal tolerance to achieve a long-sought goal of treating blood diseases prenatally. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Scientists assumed that by carefully introducing donor cells and stimulating a fetus to develop tolerance to those cells, one could set the stage for a later organ or cellular transplant that would not be rejected by a more mature immune system. (bio-medicine.org)
  • George Daley
  • This is an extremely important study showing that differences exist between stem cells made by nuclear transfer compared to reprogramming by transcription factors [to create iPSCs]," George Daley , a stem cell biologist at Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, told The Scientist in an e-mail. (the-scientist.com)
  • Stem cell biologist George Daley of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute called it "an incremental advance" and "not earth-shattering. (stabroeknews.com)
  • viable
  • They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. (fightaging.org)
  • fuse
  • In therapeutic cloning, scientists use a zap of electricity to fuse a grown cell, usually a skin cell, with an ovum whose own DNA has been removed. (stabroeknews.com)
  • You take that cell and fuse it to the enucleated egg, activate it-which starts it growing-and transfer it to a surrogate mother. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 1998
  • Those who are "attracted to the idea of selective breeding" will prefer cloning because it "involves a smaller genetic gamble than does a combination of sperm and egg of even highly desirable strangers" (Nussbaum & Sunstein, 1998, p. 252). (humancloning.org)
  • human egg
  • This technology basically involves taking a human egg and fertilizing it in vitro. (clmagazine.org)
  • 1. The Price of a Human Egg Litigated Earlier this week the Wall Street Journal reported on litigation where two women are claiming that the price guidelines for egg "donation" clinics are in violation of antitrust laws. (cbc-network.org)
  • readily
  • They also found that mature eggs taken directly from a female pig worked better than taking the more readily available immature eggs and coaxing them to maturity in the lab. (sciencemag.org)
  • sperm cells
  • MicroSort separates male sperm cells based on which sex chromosome they contain, which results in separated semen samples that contain a higher percentage of sperm cells that carry the same sex chromosome. (asu.edu)
  • woman's
  • Figure I ) This means that either one of these cells, if placed into a woman's uterus, has the potential to develop into a fetus. (diabeticgourmet.com)
  • In fact, if an inner cell mass cell were placed into a woman's uterus, it would not develop into a fetus. (diabeticgourmet.com)
  • Cell-free fetal DNA testing is a new screening test where a sample of the woman's blood is taken after 10 weeks of the pregnancy. (babymed.com)
  • early
  • A guest post by writer, speaker, and activist Melinda Tankard Reist Maggie, a ten-times egg donor in her early twenties, was diagnosed with breast cancer aged 32. (cbc-network.org)
  • In her early twenties, she made ten egg "donations" and received minimal compensation. (cbc-network.org)
  • genome
  • The scientific team, led by Roslin embryologist Ian Wilmut, reasoned that the best way to make these changes would be to tweak the genome of a cell in culture and then transfer the nucleus to a new cell. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Therapeutic cloning has long been envisioned as a means for generating patient-specific stem cells that could be used to treat a range of age-related diseases," said Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology. (bioethics.net)
  • Robert Lanza , chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (fightaging.org)
  • ovulation
  • The birth control pill, more commonly known as "the pill" is a form of contraception taken daily in pill form and consisting of synthetic hormones formulated to prevent ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of a fertilized egg. (asu.edu)
  • lines
  • Recent published reports on the isolation and successful culturing of the first human pluripotent stem cell lines have generated great excitement and have brought biomedical research to the edge of a new frontier. (diabeticgourmet.com)
  • Because the stem cell lines analyzed all came from a single somatic cell source, it will be important to extend these analyses to other stem cell lines, before drawing conclusions, said Egli. (the-scientist.com)
  • It is extremely hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • But Hale stressed that dog blood-donor drives typically accept all younger, large-sized dogs, once they pass the physical. (bio-medicine.org)
  • biologist
  • A year earlier, the team had produced twin sheep, named Megan and Morag, by cloning cultured embryonic cells in an effort spearheaded by Roslin developmental biologist Keith Campbell. (scientificamerican.com)