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  • cDNA
  • The cDNA was cloned in the course of investigating transcription factors that bind to Sp1 consensus sequences, using the in situ filter detection method, and it was found to encode a protein having the same C 2 -H 2 zinc finger motif as Sp1. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present investigation, we cloned and characterized a murine Sp1-related zinc finger transcription factor cDNA, which is expressed in the adult and developing brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • embryo
  • Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. (pnas.org)
  • Prior to the blastocyst stage, cells in the early embryo, called blastomeres, divide without increasing in mass between each division: thus the term cleavage divisions-each cell cleaves in half. (pnas.org)
  • And using the cloning technique is controversial, because it involves creating, then destroying, a human embryo. (bioethics.net)
  • If scientists allow the embryo to develop in the natural state in a mother's womb or an artificial womb environment, the cells mature and become - adult! (missourilife.org)
  • The New Jersey legislature, with an enormous push from the biotech industry, has enacted a law that specifically authorizes and encourages human cloning for fetal farming by allowing human clones to be developed through the 'embryo, fetal and newborn stages into a new human individual. (missourilife.org)
  • These are the cells obtained from a human embryo conceived by fusion of male and female gametes and allowed to grow to the blastocyst stage. (stemcellresearch.org)
  • At present (as far as I know) these cells cannot be obtained without destroying a human embryo. (stemcellresearch.org)
  • He supported the use of SCNT for the production of personalised stem cell therapies and for the study of human diseases and the use of cybrid embryo production to overcome the lack of human eggs available for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally it was proposed that the MSCs were discarded from the embryo at the end of their life cycle but since the cells remained viable in the amniotic fluid and were able to proliferate in culture this hypothesis was overturned. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Indeed, human hemochorial placentation leads to a close juxtaposition between placental villi and the uteroplacental circulation with intimate cellular contact between maternal and fetal tissue ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This transplacental exchange therefore permits immunological interactions between fetal and maternal tissue to occur during pregnancy at a peripheral interface and raises the important question as to how these are initiated and regulated ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • An initial proliferation of fetal-specific T cells that are hyporesponsive to maternal tissue has been seen ( 17 - 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Scientists create a way to isolate mRNA from a single living cell within a tissue. (the-scientist.com)
  • When human embryonic stem cells were first discovered in 1998, scientists immediately dreamed of using cloning technology to help people grow their own organ and tissue transplants, and to use them to study disease. (bioethics.net)
  • They then aborted and killed the fetal cows, obtained liver tissue cells, and transplanted the cells into adult cows. (missourilife.org)
  • Under three Presidential Administrations, Dr. Skirboll was the agency's lead on policy issues related to fetal tissue, cloning, and stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myeloma cell line that is used in this process is selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture and for an absence of antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cultured amniotic fluid-derived MSCs have a similar phenotype to both adult bone-marrow-derived MSCs and MSCs originating from second trimester fetal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • In this review, the historical work in domestic species leading up to the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), along with the practical applications of this technology, will be discussed. (pnas.org)
  • As illustrated below, basic research regarding the biological mechanisms of SCNT has led to scientific advances in the areas of reprogramming, cell fate determination, and epigenetic regulation during development. (pnas.org)
  • The Bill explicitly includes cells derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), an accurate description of the procedure known in everyday language as "cloning. (stemcellresearch.org)
  • The first study to review the long-term health outcomes of cloning, the authors found no evidence of late-onset, non-communicable diseases other than some minor examples of osteoarthritis and concluded "We could find no evidence, therefore, of a detrimental long-term effect of cloning by SCNT on the health of aged offspring among our cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. (pnas.org)
  • More specifically, a nucleus from a cell of the donor individual is inserted into an oocyte whose own nuclear DNA has been removed (enucleation). (pnas.org)
  • Possibly they used mitochondrial DNA for that purpose by using a different cow as the egg donor for the cloning. (futurepundit.com)
  • No one is harmed, the dignity of human beings is respected, and the transplantation of cells and tissues back to the donor would not be subject to rejection. (stemcellresearch.org)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • It seems it is much harder to clone a human being than it is to clone a sheep, a frog or a mouse. (bioethics.net)
  • Some in the press speculated that a contributing factor to Dolly's death was that she could have been born with a genetic age of six years, the same age as the sheep from which she was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attempt to clone a banteng bull was more successful, as were the attempts to clone mouflon (a form of wild sheep), both resulting in viable offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, Ritchie and Campbell in collaboration with PPL (Pharmaceutical Proteins Limited) created another sheep named "Polly", created from genetically altered skin cells containing a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Calcium functions as a universal intracellular messenger, controlling processes as diverse as gene transcription, muscle transcription and cell proliferation, Woods noted. (innovations-report.com)
  • Among these, causative genes for inherited diseases of the retina have been identified by positional cloning or candidate gene approaches. (jneurosci.org)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3D gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myeloma cells are selected beforehand to ensure they are not secreting antibody themselves and that they lack the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) gene, making them sensitive to the HAT medium (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, only the B cell-myeloma hybrids survive, since the HGPRT gene coming from the B cells is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Many scientists are trying to coax adult stem cells into becoming various differentiated cell types and some successes are even being reported . (futurepundit.com)
  • As scientists find ways to coax adult stem cells into becoming various assorted differentiated cell types will they find that the adult stem cells will be too old and tired to become enough of each needed cell type to be useful? (futurepundit.com)
  • The scientists also attempted to clone macaques using nuclei from adult donors, which is much more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cloned male buffalo calf Shresth was born in 2010 at the NDRI In May 2010, Got became the first cloned Spanish Fighting Bull, cloned by Spanish scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which comprises an expanding list of multifunctional proteins serving as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation ( Kingsley, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. (mdpi.com)
  • HAFP has been shown to be a growth enhancing factor in its circulating, compact-folded, native full length configuration in studies of both fetal and tumor cell growth and proliferation studies ( Figure 1A ) [ 4 - 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • adults
  • Okay, then how did they know that the cloned cells outcompeted the existing stem cells that were already in the adults? (futurepundit.com)
  • Yet the adult stem cells of old people are also going to be old and therefore less vigorous than those of younger adults. (futurepundit.com)
  • NBC News ] Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings. (bioethics.net)
  • Its Advanced Fetal Care Center can begin interventions at 15 weeks gestation,[citation needed] and in some situations (e.g., congenital heart disease and strabismus) Children's treats adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • These data show that the development of a fetal-specific adaptive cellular immune response is a normal consequence of human pregnancy and that unlike reports from some murine models, fetal-specific T cells are not deleted during human pregnancy. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several murine models have demonstrated the presence of fetal-specific CD8 + T cells during pregnancy ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • gestation
  • Moreover, it is now recognized that fetal cells and noncellular material, including placental microparticles ( 8 , 9 ), are transferred into the maternal circulation early in gestation ( 10 ) and that fetal cells may then persist lifelong in the maternal circulation ( 11 ) and tissues ( 12 ), a phenomenon termed "fetal microchimerism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Injaz, a cloned female dromedary camel, was born in 2009 at the Camel Reproduction Center in Dubai, United Arab Emirates after an "uncomplicated" gestation of 378 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • We hypothesize that fetal NK cells behave as progenitor cells that are undergoing a process of rapid, extensive, and continuous diversification and that are individually capable of generating and regenerating a complex NK cell repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • Haematopoietic progenitor cells were first reported to be present in the amniotic fluid in 1993, specifically up to the 12th week of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Apart from the fact that there is no genetically exact match for cells and tissues obtained in this way (due most probably to the difference in mitochondrial DNA), there is the serious moral objection that a genetically human being is allowed to grow and then dismembered. (stemcellresearch.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybridomas can be grown in culture, each culture starting with one viable hybridoma cell, producing cultures each of which consists of genetically identical hybridomas which produce one antibody per culture (monoclonal) rather than mixtures of different antibodies (polyclonal). (wikipedia.org)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The present protocol has been standardized following Hissin and Hilf (1976) for the estimation of glutathione in cultured microglial cell lysate but it can also be used for other mammalian cell lysate. (bio-protocol.org)
  • developmental
  • Although the existence of NK cells has been known for more than 20 years, many of the basic issues concerning these cells, such as their developmental pathway, their mechanisms of recognition, and their physiologic function, are still poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2001
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Having served as a serum biomarker for cancers of the liver, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract, HAFP is now being investigated as an activator of cell surface receptors as well as a regulator of cytoplasmic transcription factors involved in signaling pathways [ 7 - 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • bovine
  • Once a hybridoma colony is established, it will continually grow in culture medium like RPMI-1640 (with antibiotics and fetal bovine serum) and produce antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • Analysis of the original protein (fetal Alz-50 reactive clone 1, or FAC1), identified as an 810 aa protein containing a DNA-binding domain and a zinc finger motif, suggested it might play a role in the regulation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • NeuroD1 is found to convert reactive glial cells into functional neurons in the mouse brain in vivo NEUROD1 has been shown to interact with MAP3K10, MAFA and Cyclin D1. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Maintaining a cloned human up to the threshold of live birth and then destroying him or her for stem cells, tissues and organs is permitted. (missourilife.org)
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. (pnas.org)
  • germ
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, it was confirmed that the amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers but they could not form teratomas following implantation into immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identical
  • In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. (pnas.org)
  • Identical twins are the obvious examples, but perhaps more intriguing are armadillos, in which the offspring in a litter are all clones derived from one zygote ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The B cell that produces the desired antibodies can be cloned to produce many identical daughter clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In human fertilization, a released ovum (a haploid secondary oocyte with replicate chromosome copies) and a haploid sperm cell (male gamete)-combine to form a single 2n diploid cell called the zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, as the process of the embryo splits to form identical twins - leaving the original tissues intact - a new embryo is generated, rendering it no different from the process of cloning an adult human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, Hall helped identify transforming sequences in human sarcoma cells lines at the Institute for Cancer Research in London. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western Blot
  • Western blot analysis of DUSP22 over-expressed 293 cell line, cotransfected with DUSP22 Validated Chimera RNAi ( Cat # H00056940-R01V ) (Lane 2) or non-transfected control (Lane 1). (abnova.com)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that 35bp upstream of TATA-box is sufficient for assigning CAT-gene expression in this cell line. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As expected, some transgenic mice bearing 2kb or 6kb constructs showed tissue specific expression of LacZ gene in hair follicles, gut pacemaker cells and neurons where KL is expressed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • Transient co-transfection experiments using an hTR promoter luciferase reporter construct show that hTR promoter activity is inhibited by over-expression of mdm2 in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells (p53 and pRB negative, low mdm2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Elucidation of new regulators affecting hTR basal promoter activity in cancer cells provides a basis for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of the differential hTR expression between normal and cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such inactivation of Tax expression is considered to allow ATL cells to escape from the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • That is, the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene segments result in the generation of antibody repertoire during development and maturation of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • A Chlamydomonas zygote that contains chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from both parents, such cells generally are rare since normally cpDNA is inherited uniparental from the mt+ mating type parent.These rare biparental zygotes allowed mapping of chloroplast genes by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • This cell may then enter meiosis or mitosis depending on the life cycle of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase replaces short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which are otherwise shortened when a cell divides via mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cPB1 is also homologous to yeast Rsc1, Rsc2, and Rsc4, essential proteins that are required for cell cycle progression through mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The purpose of the present study is to produce model mice in which the hematopoiesis supporting cells are easily distinguished from other stromal cell component. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Embryonic stem cells were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Known contraindications include: Hypersensitivities to doxepin, other TCAs, or any of the excipients inside the product used Glaucoma A predisposition to developing urinary retention such as in benign prostatic hyperplasia Use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in last 14 days Its use in pregnant and lactating women is advised against, although the available preclinical (based on animal studies) evidence suggests it is unlikely to cause any deleterious effects on fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the processes of compaction, cell division, and blastulation, the conceptus takes the form of the blastocyst by the fifth day of development, just as it approaches the site of implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cells and Development. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was believed that the drug thalidomide binds and inactivates cereblon, which leads to an antiproliferative effect on myeloma cells and a teratogenic effect on fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK, and other proteins, and has been linked to roles in the function of the immune system, and the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Osteochondral explants and cell-seeded gel samples were cultivated in-vitro for three weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bovine in vitro produced embryos and placentas obtained from natural mating or cloning-derived fetuses had their RNA extracted. (usp.br)
  • The transcription rapidly recovered after in vitro culture in such ATL cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are cultured from the embryoblast 4-5 days after fertilization, harvesting them is most often done from donated embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • France prohibits reproductive cloning and embryo creation for research purposes, but enacted laws (with a sunset provision expiring in 2009) to allow scientists to conduct stem cell research on imported a large amount of embryos from in vitro fertilization treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPase activity of different mutant forms of p21, one cloned from a patient with myeloblastic leukaemia and one derived from in vitro mutagenesis, was measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • In the amoeba, reproduction occurs by cell division of the parent cell: first the nucleus of the parent divides into two and then the cell membrane also cleaves, becoming two "daughter" Amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comparison with the normal cells showed that Rac1 stimulates actin filament production at the membrane, pinocytosis, and membrane ruffling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also at first, the mature B cell expresses membrane-bound IgD and IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • The information presented here covers the legal implications of embryonic stem cells (ES), rather than induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to multipotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and are thought to be able to give rise to all cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2007, researchers at Wake Forest University reported that "stem cells drawn from amniotic fluid donated by pregnant women hold much of the same promise as embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas Germany, Austria, Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands prohibit or severely restrict the use of embryonic stem cells, Greece, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom have created the legal basis to support this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • These proteins are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in cell signaling. (abnova.com)
  • The rearrangement and organization of these gene segments during the maturation of B cells produce functional proteins.The entire process of rearrangement and organization of these gene segments is the vital source where our body immune system gets its capabilities to recognize and respond to variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Among her influential contributions are studies that link pneumococcal virulence factors to specific host receptors, the inflammatory bioactivities of cell wall, and the increased susceptibility of children with sickle cell disease to pneumococcal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • A diagnosis of DBA is made on the basis of anemia, low reticulocyte (immature red blood cells) counts, and diminished erythroid precursors in bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final rearrangement of the light chain gene generates immature B cell and mIgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In the stomach, somatostatin acts directly on the acid-producing parietal cells via a G-protein coupled receptor (which inhibits adenylate cyclase, thus effectively antagonising the stimulatory effect of histamine) to reduce acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomerase
  • In normal circumstances, absent telomerase, if a cell divides recursively, at some point the progeny reach their Hayflick limit, which is believed to be between 50-70 cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase allows each offspring to replace the lost bit of DNA allowing the cell line to divide without ever reaching the limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • inhibit
  • As such, the main purpose of dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is to increase the rate of diffusion of the molecules into the cells and inhibit them from diffusing out. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)) Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Inhibit adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Although the reaction is reversible in solution, within the cell the enzyme only works in the forward direction as shown below because the concentration of inorganic phosphate is much higher than that of glucose-1-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • JNK Pathway-associated Phosphatase Dephosphorylates Focal Adhesion Kinase and Suppresses Cell Migration. (abnova.com)
  • protein
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • DBA causes low red blood cell counts (anemia), without substantially affecting the other blood components (the platelets and the white blood cells), which are usually normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • In seedless plants, the archegonium is usually flask-shaped, with a long hollow neck through which the sperm cell enters. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • This is in contrast to Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome, in which the bone marrow defect results primarily in neutropenia, and Fanconi anemia, where all cell lines are affected resulting in pancytopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature B cell formed as RNA processing changes leaves the bone marrow and is stimulated by the antigen then differentiated into IgM -secreted plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • In baboon skeletal muscle, which consists of fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, less than 3% of myonuclei contain damaged telomeres and this percentage does not increase with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • How are Hap1 knockout cell lines generated? (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Next, the transforming activities of the rhabdomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines were measured after being digested with an array of endonucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Eight medical organizations and a bioethics journal recognize the independent link - that abortion leaves a woman with more cancer-vulnerable cells than she had before she became pregnant. (pfli.org)
  • Biology
  • Alan Hall FRS (19 May 1952 - 3 May 2015) was a British cell biologist and a biology professor at the Sloan-Kettering Institute, where he was chair of the Cell Biology program. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • For example, in the lymphoid cell, a partial rearrangement of the heavy-chain gene occurs which is followed by complete rearrangement of heavy-chain gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, the assortment of these gene segments occurs at B cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • Since the periplasmic gap is more prone to environmental variation than the inner cell, alkaline phosphatase is suitably resistant to inactivation, denaturation, or degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Mechanistic studies showed that the synergistic cell death was not due to an increase in viral replication but occurred through an enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)