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  • patella
  • Patellar subluxation can be caused by osseous abnormalities, such as incorrect articulation of the femoral groove with the patella, trochlear dysplasia, or patella alta, which is a distance of greater than 20 mm between the tibial tubercle and the trochlear groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • kneecap
  • Patellar subluxation syndrome, also known as patellar instability, or unstable kneecap is an injury that is concerned with the kneecap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms usually include: Knee buckles and can no longer support your weight Kneecap slips off to the side Knee catches during movement Pain in the front of the knee that increases with activity Pain when sitting Stiffness Creaking or cracking sounds during movement Swelling Patellar subluxation was once thought to occur mainly in women, due to the frequency of genu valgum and lax ligaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • collateral
  • The fibular collateral ligament is often considered with tibiofemoral components. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting series of transverse axes permit the sliding and rolling motion in the flexing knee while ensuring the collateral ligaments are sufficiently lax to permit the rotation associated with the curvature of the medial condyle about a vertical axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the CrCL, the other soft tissue structures stabilising the stifle are the caudal cruciate ligament and the two menisci, all of which are intra-articular (within the joint), and the two collateral ligaments (external to the joint). (wikipedia.org)
  • tendons
  • The stay apparatus is a group of ligaments, tendons and muscles which "lock" major joints in the limbs of the horse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stay apparatus is an arrangement of muscles, tendons and ligaments that work together so that an animal can remain standing with "virtually no" muscular effort. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the hind limbs, the major muscles, ligaments and tendons work with the reciprocal joints of the hock and stifle, which are a reciprocal apparatus that forces the hock and stifle to flex and extend in unison. (wikipedia.org)
  • injuries
  • ACL injuries can be categorized into groups- contact and non-contact based on the nature of the injury Contact injuries occur when a person or object come into contact with the knee causing the ligament to tear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suspensory Ligament Injuries in Horses" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)