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  • thioesterase
  • Expression of the heterologous Dunaliella tertiolecta fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase leads to increased lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Yeast FAS has a highly efficient rigid barrel-like structure with 6 reaction chambers which synthesize fatty acids independently, while the mammalian FAS has an open flexible structure with only two reaction chambers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stringent response, also called stringent control, is a stress response of bacteria and plant chloroplasts in reaction to amino-acid starvation, fatty acid limitation, iron limitation, heat shock and other stress conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • In other bacteria, the stringent response is mediated by a variety of RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins, with some having only synthetic, or hydrolytic or both (Rel) activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • In recent years, the molecular organization of the plant fatty acid synthetases has been examined in extracts from various plant tissues, and in all cases was found to be nonassociated and similar to the prokaryotic type of E . coli (1, 2, 3). (springer.com)
  • Liver
  • Blocking this protein either through genetic engineering or drugs has the possibility of treating heart disease, diabetes, asthma, obesity, and fatty liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to high levels of fatty acyl-CoA being present in the liver, which shows that a diseased liver cannot regulate the amount of fatty acyl-CoA that is present versus a normal, healthy liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Specifically focusing on various ribosomal complexes involved in co-translational protein processing, folding, and targeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • a) the ABC transporter that allows the fatty acid transport across the peroxisomal membrane, b) enzymes carrying out the beta-oxidation pathway ACOX1, D-PBE, ACAA1 and SCPX, c) CROT, which transfers the carnitine to an acyl not completely oxidized, d) the thioesterases PTE1, PTE2, PTE2a and PTE2b, that regulates the acyl-CoA esterification and control the fatty acid shorting during the beta-oxidation. (216.92.14)
  • The factor which influence goat cheese are lipolytic enzymes, fatty acid composition, starter and nonstarter bacteria which are present, storage temperature and time, pH and moisture levels of curds, salt-to moisture ratio, salt, surface area that is exposed, salt-to-moisture ratio and surface area that is exposed and humidity. (healthbenefitstimes.com)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipoate-protein ligase catalyses the formation of an amide linkage between lipoic acid and a specific lysine residue of the lipoyl domain of lipoate dependent enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four large multi-domain type I polyketide synthase (PKS) proteins are encoded, as well as several single function enzymes with sequence similarity to type II PKSs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include enzymes called ceramide-activated Ser-Thr phosphatases (CAPPs), such as protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), which were found to interact with ceramide in studies done in a controlled environment outside of a living organism (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • As such, many lipid signaling molecules cannot circulate freely in solution but, rather, exist bound to special carrier proteins in serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a curiosity, the same mutation was also associated to a decrease in serum LDL levels in carriers, so the authors suggest that is due to the need of cholesterol to regenerate cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • This interest has been fueled in part by the recent discovery of a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptor proteins known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) believed to be involved in innate immunity as receptors for pathogen- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (allindianpatents.com)
  • leukocyte
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • This substitution creates a hydrophobic spot on the outside of the protein that sticks to the hydrophobic region of an adjacent haemoglobin molecule's beta chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • creates
  • The all-wet process uses raw coconut rather than dried copra, and the protein in the coconut creates an emulsion of oil and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The carriers of C alleles presented with lower thickness of subcutaneous tissue and higher concentrations of HDL-C than the wild type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are type I transmembrane proteins that allow organisms (including mammals) to detect microbes and initiate an innate immune response (Beutler, B., Nature 2004, 430:257-263). (allindianpatents.com)
  • It is the best alternative to cow's milk cheese due to its low content of lactose, easier to digest, contains type 2 casein proteins and is usually less inflammatory and allergenic. (healthbenefitstimes.com)
  • These AT domains are the only domains present on MmpC, while the other three type I PKS proteins contain no AT domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The mupirocin cluster exhibits an atypical acyltransferase (AT) organization, in that there are only two AT domains, and both are found on the same protein, MmpC. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • IL-6 is now well recognized for its role in the acute phase of inflammatory response which is characterized by production of a variety of hepatic proteins known as acute phase proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • present
  • Results showed that there are special proteins (lectins) present on the zeospheres of the fungi which recognize specific sugar moieties upon the algal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotin protein ligases may also have an additional N-terminal domain required for DNA binding, although this domain is not always present. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Although grown worldwide for its protein and oil, high value added products such as plant functional nutraceuticals, including phospholipids, saponins, isoflavones, oligosaccharides and edible fibre, have gained importance in the last decade. (intechopen.com)
  • The copra is pressed or dissolved with solvents, producing the coconut oil and a high-protein, high-fiber mash. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Using very sensitive methods, LECT2 protein can also be detected at low levels in the endothelial cells of hepatic arteries and veins including central veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta globin (also referred to as HBB, β-globin, haemoglobin beta, hemoglobin beta, or preferably haemoglobin subunit beta) is a globin protein, which along with alpha globin (HBA), makes up the most common form of haemoglobin in adult humans, the HbA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the unstable protein itself has mild effect, inherited with HbS and thalassemia traits, it turns into a life-threatening form of β-thalassemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Matveeva, E.A.;Price, D.A.;Whiteheart, S.W.;Vanaman, T.C.;Gerhardt, G.A.;Slevin, J.T. "Reduction of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 expression leads to a kindling-resistant phenotype in a murine model of epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • important
  • Soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a globally important commercial crop, grown mainly for its protein, oil and nutraceutical contents. (intechopen.com)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that LECT is an evolutionary conserved protein, has one or more important functions, and may be involved in various diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • The transcript initiated from the proximal promoter encodes the longer SCPx protein, and the transcript initiated from the distal promoter encodes the shorter SCP2 protein, with the 2 proteins sharing a common C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • A second major area of study concerns depolarization depemndent reversible phodsphorylation of various protein factors of the vesicular neurosecretory apparatus and the possible dysfunction in this system in epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • In Bacillus subtilis, the transfer is from the glycine cleavage system H protein, GcvH, to other lipoyl domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)