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  • arachidonic acid
  • These enzymes appear to constitute a pathway producing hydroperoxides and epoxyalcohols from arachidonic acid. (diva-portal.org)
  • The 12 R -hydroperoxide of arachidonic acid (12 R -HPETE) was prepared by autoxidation and separated from other hydroperoxides by chiral HPLC. (diva-portal.org)
  • 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cell types (e.g. platelets) metabolize arachidonic acid to the stereoisomer of 15(S)-HpETE, 15(R)-HpETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both stereoisomers may also be formed as result of the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cellular microsomes or as a result of arachidonic acid auto-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cells release arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) from its storage site in phospholipids by reactions that involve phospholipase C and/or lipase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The freed arachidonic acid is then converted to 15-hydroperoxy/hydroxy products by one or more of the following five pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of cell membrane arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) to omega-6 prostaglandin and omega-6 leukotriene eicosanoids during the inflammatory cascade provides many targets for pharmaceutical drugs to impede the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis, asthma, arthritis, vascular disease, thrombosis, immune-inflammatory processes, and tumor proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many steps in formation and action of omega-6 prostaglandins from omega-6 arachidonic acid proceed more vigorously than the corresponding competitive steps in formation and action of omega-3 hormones from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor medications, used to treat inflammation and pain, work by preventing the COX enzymes from turning arachidonic acid into inflammatory compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LOX inhibitor medications often used to treat asthma work by preventing the LOX enzyme from converting arachidonic acid into the leukotrienes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the anti-mania medications used to treat bipolar disorder work by targeting the arachidonic acid cascade in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other members of this class of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, it possesses strong anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linoleate
  • Because cis-unsaturated fatty acids incorporated in cell membranes increase membrane fluidity and can thereby dramatically alter membrane-dependent cellular functions, we examined the effect of linoleate and oleate incorporation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell membranes on the physical properties of the membrane and concomitantly on low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • acyl
  • FabR represses expression of the two genes, fabA and fabB, required for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis and has been reported to require the presence of an unsaturated thioester (of either acyl carrier protein or CoA) in order to bind the fabA and fabB promoters in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • We report that FabR bound the intact promoter regions of both fabA and fabB in the absence of unsaturated acyl thioesters, but bound the two promoters differently. (nih.gov)
  • The conversion is catalyzed by cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • which enters the standard fatty acid synthesis cycle and becomes elongated to the sixteen and eighteen carbon UFAs of the membrane phospholipids. (nih.gov)
  • Enrichment with both of these fatty acids produced an increase in membrane fluidity, as indicated by a reduction in the steady-state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene incorporated in the membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work resulted in the publication on methods to easily catalyze the insertion of deuterium into unsaturated fatty acids, which could then be used as probes of membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria regulate membrane fluidity by manipulating the relative levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids within the phospholipids of their membrane bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derivatives
  • Sulfinic acid and R-SO3H derivatives are produced only at high molar excesses of HClO, and disulfides are formed primarily at bacteriocidal levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a hydrogen, resulting in an organic chloramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • thioester
  • Thus unsaturated thioester ligands were not essential for FabR/target DNA interaction, but acted to enhance binding. (nih.gov)
  • DECR binds NADPH and the fatty acid thioester and positions them for specific hydride transfer to the Cδ on the hydrocarbon chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • protective
  • However, omega−3 fatty acid supplementation greater than one gram daily for at least a year may be protective against cardiac death, sudden death, and myocardial infarction in people who have a history of cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The copepod's diet of phytoplankton who are rich in Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFAs) allow them to synthesise this protective protein, granting them tolerance to radiation year-round. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • The aim of this thesis was to develop analytical methods to prepare and analyze hydroperoxides and epoxyalcohols derived from fatty acids by LC-MS/MS, and to investigate the catalytic performance of CYP4F8 and CYP4F22 for these substrates. (diva-portal.org)
  • These findings indicate that L. calcarifer display an essential fatty acid pattern similar to other marine fish in that they appear unable to synthesize HUFA from C 18 substrates. (springer.com)
  • Thereafter the glucose that is released into the blood by the liver for general use by the body tissues, has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closely related omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids act as competing substrates for the same enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADPH
  • Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADPH is also formed by the pentose phosphate pathway which converts glucose into ribose, which can be used in synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, or it can be catabolized to pyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • The present invention provides a method for manufacturing fat-soluble phytosterol or phytostanol ester of unsaturated fatty acid for inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol and foodstuffs containing the same. (sumobrain.com)
  • Omega−3 fatty acids reduce blood triglyceride levels but do not significantly change the level of LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important intermediary in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, fatty acid groups, cholesterol and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • order of magnit
  • The signal intensities increased about two orders of magnitude by raising the isolation width of A(-) from 1.5 amu to 5 or 10 amu for cis-trans conjugated hydroperoxy fatty acids, and one order of magnitude of more for non-conjugated hydroperoxy fatty acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mutant proteins with modifications at key acidic amino acids (E154, E227, E276, D300, D117) show order of magnitude increases in Km and/or decreases in Vmax. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In cellular metabolism, unsaturated fat molecules contain somewhat less energy (i.e., fewer calories) than an equivalent amount of saturated fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • One sulfhydryl-containing amino acid can scavenge up to four molecules of HOCl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Andrew Stoll, who advocates the consumption of the two fats in a 1:1 ratio, states, "Once in the body, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids follow parallel pathways, continually competing with each other for chemical conversion to various structures and molecules inside and outside the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protectins are signaling molecules that are produced enzymatically from unsaturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • mDECR is 124kD consisting of 335 amino acids before posttranslational modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorinated amino acids rapidly decompose, but protein chloramines are longer-lived and retain some oxidative capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • phytosterol
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the phytosterol is selected from the group consisting of stigmasterol, spinasterol, campesterol and sitosterol. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the phytostanol is sitostanol or campestanol. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the nonpolar solvent is selected from the group consisting of toluene, methylenechloride, dichloroethane, tetrahydrofuran, benzene and diethylether. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the carboxyl group activating agent is selected from the group consisting of 1,3 dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), 1ethyl3 (3' dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, oxalyl chloride, carbonyl diimidazole, 2chloropyridium, 2,2'dipyridyl disulfide and 2imidazoyl disulfide. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by employing phytosterol or phytostanol and unsaturated fatty acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to 1: 3. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by adding the carboxyl group activating agent in a dropwise to phytosterol or phytostanol in a molar ratio of 1: 1.1 to 1: 3 under a refluxed temperature for 1 to 5 hours. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the precipitation is carried out at the temperature of4 to 6C for 1 to 30 hrs. (sumobrain.com)
  • trans
  • Tohoku University researchers have found that trans-fatty acids promote cell death in a more direct manner than previously thought, leading to the development of atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. (phys.org)
  • Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Observational studies reporting associations of saturated fat and/or trans unsaturated fat (total, industrially manufactured, or from ruminant animals) with all cause mortality, CHD/CVD mortality, total CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • The S enantiomer of 8-, 9-, 10-, and 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids and the S enantiomer of cis-trans conjugated hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids eluted before the corresponding R enantiomer with two exceptions (11-hydroperoxylinoleic acid and 8-hydroperoxyeicosa-5Z,9E,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid). (diva-portal.org)
  • Although both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can replace saturated fat in the diet, trans unsaturated fats should not. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • Although unsaturated fats are conventionally regarded as 'healthier' than saturated fats, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation stated that the amount of unsaturated fat consumed should not exceed 30% of one's daily caloric intake. (wikipedia.org)