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  • fats
  • In the liver (4) bile is produced which emulsifies fats and neutralises stomach acid making the conditions right for the enzymes in the small intestine. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Bile is produced in the liver to neutralise the stomach acid and emulsifies fats. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The leitmotif of his work was the enzymatic utilization of chemical-bond-energy from degradation of foodstuffs (essentially, glucose from glycolysis) for the biosynthetic processes involving phosphates and vitamin-derived coenzymes, leading to condensed biomacromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, fats, and their conjugates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The main function of bile acids is to allow digestion of dietary fats and oils by acting as a surfactant that emulsifies them into micelles, allowing them to be colloidally suspended in the chyme before further processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Glutamine-consuming tissues, such as the GI tract, the liver and the immune system, use glutamine for the synthesis of nucleotides, proteins and amino sugars. (earthturns.com)
  • Intestinal mucosal cells need glutamine as a nitrogen donor for the biosynthesis of a number of important compounds, including nucleotides needed for cell division, amino sugars for building the glycosaminoglycans of intestinal mucous, amino acids that are crucial for protein synthesis as well as for an energy source. (earthturns.com)
  • Chloroplasts in plants function as solar panels, transforming the energy of the visible spectrum of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, cellulose and ATP, whereas, animal mitochondria transform the stored chemical energy in the ingested sugars and starches, as well as fatty acids, into ATP. (urantia.org)
  • mixed acid ferment
  • Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation ( poxB , ackA ) were up-regulated in the biofilm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific transcriptomic fingerprints can be inferred for both planktonic and sessile cells, having the former a more active TCA cycle, while the mixed acid fermentation process dominate in the latter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biosynthesis
  • The most striking functional groups responding to the shift to acidic pH were genes of the exopolysaccharide I biosynthesis as well as flagellar and chemotaxis genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine whether the naturally occurring amino acid threonine, a potential precursor for glycine biosynthesis in the spinal cord, has an effect on spasticity in multiple sclerosis, 26 ambulatory patients were entered into a randomized crossover trial. (thisisms.com)
  • electron
  • electron microscopic localization of transport sites, Brain Res , 2AA:69-80 (1982). (springer.com)
  • The bulk of our ATP is made, and used by muscles, second is brain/heart so succinic acid is especially good for treating diseases of these system as it directly makes ATP in the electron transport chain. (thisisms.com)
  • Succinate is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle and serves an electron donor in the production of fumaric acid and FADH2. (thisisms.com)
  • The production of ATP via the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. (brainscape.com)
  • comparing respiration and fermentation -- Lifestyles of the rich and facultative -- Digging into respiration -- Spinning the citric acid cycle -- Stepping down the electron transport chain -- Respiring anaerobically -- Figuring out fermentation -- 11. (izs.it)
  • It is oxidized with loss of one electron to form a radical cation and then with loss of a second electron to form dehydroascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is generated from succinyl-CoA by the enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase in a GTP/ATP-producing step: Succinyl-CoA + NDP + Pi → Succinate + CoA + NTP Catalyzed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), succinate is subsequently oxidized to fumarate: Succinate + FAD → Fumarate + FADH2 SDH also participates in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, where it is known as respiratory Complex 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • free amino
  • In addition, glutamine makes up to 60 percent of the free amino acids in the bones, making it an important supplement for fitness enthusiasts[ 4 ]. (sati.com)
  • bile
  • Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different molecular forms of bile acids can be synthesized in the liver by different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine in the liver, and the sodium and potassium salts of these conjugated bile acids are called bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid) are the major bile salts in bile and are roughly equal in concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugated salts of their 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, are also found, with derivatives of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids accounting for over 90% of human biliary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids are about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • An increased secretion of bile acids produces an increase in bile flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 600 mg of bile salts are synthesized daily to replace bile acids lost in the feces, although, as described below, much larger amounts are secreted, reabsorbed in the gut and recycled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with one of two amino acids, glycine or taurine, to form a total of 8 possible conjugated bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts because of their physiologically-important acid-base properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these bile salts are secreted into the lumen of the intestine, bacterial partial dehydroxylation and removal of the glycine and taurine groups forms the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • All four of these bile acids can be taken back up into the blood stream, return to the liver, and be re-secreted in a process known as enterohepatic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical micellar concentration" refers to both an intrinsic property of the bile acid itself and amount of bile acid necessary to function in the spontaneous and dynamic formation of micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human adults secrete between 12-18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bile acid pool size is between 4-6 g, which means that bile acids are recycled several times each day. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system and gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taurine is conjugated via its amino terminal group with chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid to form the bile salts sodium taurochenodeoxycholate and sodium taurocholate. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspartate
  • Microbes growing poorly on amino acid substrates alanine, aspartate, serine, leucine, valine, and glycine can have their rate of growth dramatically increased by syntrophic H2 scavengers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digestion
  • In a nutshell, digestion involves breaking down large food molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be passed into the blood and transported to the body's organs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Aside from the solid and hollow organs, the nervous and circulatory systems are also important in digestion, as are the bacteria that live in the gut. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • converts
  • Upon hydrolysis, an amide converts into a carboxylic acid and an amine or ammonia (which in the presence of acid are immediately converted to ammonium salts). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme is down-regulated by cholic acid, up-regulated by cholesterol and is inhibited by the actions of the ileal hormone FGF15/19. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to its sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J. Amino acid neurotoxicity: intracellular sites of calcium accumulation associated with the onset of irreversible damage to rat cerebellar neurones in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Aqueous
  • Synthetic taurine is obtained by the ammonolysis of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • Obviously, the response to acidic pH is not based on a few specific genes, but involves whole sets of genes associated with various cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1937, the Nobel Prize for chemistry was awarded to Haworth for his work in determining the structure of ascorbic acid - shared with Paul Karrer, who received his award for work on vitamins - and the prize for Physiology or Medicine that year went to Albert Szent-Györgyi for his studies of the biological functions of L-ascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric
  • The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy on smear layer removal of 4 decalcifying agents: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 20% citric acid, BioPure MTAD, and SmearClear. (biomedsearch.com)
  • reactions
  • As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions: (CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− + H+ (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− → (CH2)2(CO2)22− + H+ The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Once in the colon, FOS selectively feeds the beneficial symbiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, and other acid-producing bacteria. (earthturns.com)
  • Because methylmercury is formed in aquatic systems and because it is not readily eliminated from organisms it is biomagnified in aquatic food chains from bacteria, to plankton, through macroinvertebrates, to herbivorous fish and to piscivorous (fish-eating) fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, hypochlorous acid is generated in activated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, and contributes to the destruction of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugation machinery of some bacteria (and archaeal flagella) is capable of transporting both DNA and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Terrian D.M., Bischoff S.B., Schwartz M.A., Dorman R.V. (1987) Molecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy Fiber Terminals of Rat Cerebellum. (springer.com)
  • We identified C. jejuni genes more highly expressed during exposure to human fecal extracts in comparison to chicken cecal extracts and differentially expressed in extracts compared with medium alone, and targeted one specific iron uptake system for further molecular, genetic, and phenotypic study. (asm.org)
  • ions
  • Sodium ions react very little with the hydroxide ions whereas the acetate ions combine with hydronium ions to produce acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the changes in gill morphology induced by dietary salt feeding on several aspects of gill function in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss maintained in fresh water with specific emphasis on Cl(-) uptake (J(IN) Cl(-) ) and acid-base regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • succinic acid
  • Here is a folder full of info on succinic acid. (thisisms.com)
  • In the text file succinic acid info is a good overview of it. (thisisms.com)
  • Succinic acid (/səkˈsɪnɪk/) is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dehydration of succinic acid gives succinic anhydride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, succinic acid was obtained from amber by distillation and has thus been known as spirit of amber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, succinic acid is generated for human use synthetically or converted from biomass via fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator in the food and beverage industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • pantothenic acid
  • In this course he discovered the coenzyme of enzymatic transacetylations, coenzyme A, acronymized "CoA" or "CoA-SH," containing the transfer catalyzing thiol(SH)-function of its pantetheine moiety, a vitamin composed of pantothenic acid and cysteamine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • circulatory
  • Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • If all human hemoglobin were free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The circulatory system consists of a number of organs and an associated transport system. (poultryhub.org)
  • The circulatory system consists of a number of organs that produce the blood cells and the organs that pump it around the body (the heart), and the blood vessels such as the arteries, veins, capillaries and lymph vessels that carry it. (poultryhub.org)