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  • method
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the subject is nonhyperlipidemic. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 2 wherein the amount is sufficient to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity above normal baseline levels. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 2 wherein the subject has a condition comprising an abnormally low level of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity which is hypoxia-induced. (google.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 2 wherein the subject has an abnormally elevated risk of pulmonary hypertension. (google.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 2 wherein the subject has pulmonary hypertension. (google.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 2 wherein the subject is chronically exposed to hypoxic conditions. (google.com)
  • 14. A The method of claim 1 further comprising co-administering a nonHMG-CoA reductase inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.com)
  • 1987. Single step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • reductase
  • Through FLIM FRET, it was shown that CHS interacts with chalcone isomerase (CHI), a consecutive step enzyme, as well as other non-consecutive step enzymes flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and flavonol synthase I. Naringenin-chalcone synthase uses malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA to produce CoA, naringenin chalcone, and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modules may also consist of any of the following modifying domains: a dehydratase (DH), an enoyl reductase (ER) and one of two types of ketoreductase (KR) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids is a powerful tool for studying functional traits of microbial populations within complex communities, but SIP involves a number of technical challenges. (biomedsearch.com)
  • substrates
  • It is not a single enzyme but a whole enzymatic system composed of two identical 272 kDa multifunctional polypeptides, in which substrates are handed from one functional domain to the next. (wikipedia.org)
  • They use the coenzyme A - thioester of (r)-hydroxy fatty acids as substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thereafter the glucose that is released into the blood by the liver for general use by the body tissues, has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is substantial structural homology among all bacterial FabH enzymes determined thus far, with two channels for binding of acyl-CoA and malonyl-ACP substrates and a conserved catalytic triad (C122, H258, N289 in mtFabH), mtFabH contains residues along the acyl-CoA binding channel that preferentially select for longer-chain substrates peaking with lauroyl-CoA (C12). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitors
  • If we accept the paradigm of FASN dysfunction as a previously unrecognized link between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, the use of insulin sensitizers in parallel with forthcoming FASN inhibitors should be a valuable therapeutic approach that, in association with lifestyle interventions, would concurrently improve energy-flux status, ameliorate insulin sensitivity, and alleviate the risk of lipogenic carcinomas. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Inhibitors of fatty acid synthase for prostate cancer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Kridel, Steven J. "Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer" report written by Wake Forest University under grant from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (44 pages) (report date: May 31, 2010) (made available to the public: May 2011). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Unlike the enzymes in FAS-I, the enzymes of FAS-II, including mtFabH, and are not found in mammals, suggesting inhibitors of these enzymes are suitable choices for drug development. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivatives
  • As a result, microbial fatty acid derivatives are emerging as a promising renewable energy alternative to fossil fuel derived transportation fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iterative PKSs (IPKSs) can be still further subdivided: NR-PKSs - non-reducing PKSs, the products of which are true polyketides PR-PKSs - partially reducing PKSs FR-PKSs - fully reducing PKSs, the products of which are fatty acid derivatives Each type I polyketide-synthase module consists of several domains with defined functions, separated by short spacer regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • condensation
  • Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, perhaps the most well known of this family of enzymes, catalyzes a Claisen condensation between acetyl CoA and malonyl ACP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five distinct, naturally occurring mycolactone structural variants have been described so far: Mycolactone A/B (M. ulcerans from Africa, Malaysia, Japan) Mycolactone C (M. ulcerans from Australia) Mycolactone D (M. ulcerans from China) Mycolactone E (M. liflandii from Sub-Saharan Africa) Mycolactone F (M. pseudoshottsii and M. marinum from around the world) Mycolactone is produced by MPM through condensation of two polyketide chains (known as the core and acyl side chain). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • One hallmark of nonribosomal peptide antibiotics is the presence of D-amino acids, often in substantial abundance. (asmscience.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type A and B KRs refer to the two directions of ketoreduction that are correlated with specific amino acids in the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Fatty acids (FAs) 1 for animal metabolism have 2 sources, exogenously derived (dietary) FAs and de novo endogenously synthesized FAs. (aaccjnls.org)
  • However, even though they are both involved in fatty acid metabolism, they also have highly divergent primary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gut microbiota regulates bile acid metabolism by reducing the levels of tauro-beta-muricholic acid, a naturally occurring FXR antagonist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this review we discuss how metabolomics has contributed so far to characterizing TB, with emphasis on the resulting improved elucidation of M. tuberculosis in terms of (1) metabolism, (2) growth and replication, (3) pathogenicity, and (4) drug resistance, from the perspective of systems biology. (hindawi.com)
  • Light-dependent alterations are observed in amino acid, isoprenoid, nucleic acid, and vitamin biosynthesis, suggesting a deep remodeling in the microalgal metabolism triggered by photoadaptation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • novo
  • Background: An emerging paradigm supports the notion that deregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN)-catalyzed de novo FA biogenesis could play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases sharing the hallmark of insulin-resistance. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Instead of using a conventional type I or type II synthase, found in all other cells, trypanosomes use microsomal elongases to make fatty acids de novo. (moderntymes.com)
  • consists
  • In synthase II, each subunit consists of a five-stranded beta pleated sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices, shown in the image below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest and most commonly occurring form of PHA is the fermentative production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, P3HB), which consists of 1000 to 30000 hydroxy fatty acid monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • N-Substituted 2-Isonicotinoylhydrazinecarboxamides â€" New Antimycobacterial Active Molecules. (ebscohost.com)
  • Fatty acids are aliphatic acids fundamental to energy production and storage, cellular structure and as intermediates in the biosynthesis of hormones and other biologically important molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyketide synthases are an important source of naturally occurring small molecules used for chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only about 1% of all known molecules are natural products, yet it has been recognized that almost two thirds of all drugs currently in use are at least in part derived from a natural source. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it allows for the formation of more molecules, including "medium-chain" fatty acids via early chain termination. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are broadly divided into three classes: type I polyketides (often macrolides produced by multimodular megasynthases), type II polyketides (often aromatic molecules produced by the iterative action of dissociated enzymes), and type III polyketides (often small aromatic molecules produced by fungal species). (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediates
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type III PKSs are associated with the production of chalcones, a class of organic compounds found mainly in plants as natural defense mechanisms and as synthetic intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • The gene encoding a FabH-like, type III ketosynthase (KS), located upstream of mlsA1, encodes a putative "joinase" (MUP045), and a type II thioesterase (TE II) gene (MUP038) is located between mlsA2 and mlsB. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrates
  • In humans, fatty acids are formed from carbohydrates predominantly in the liver and adipose tissue, as well as in the mammary glands during lactation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important intermediary in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesize
  • Fatty acids can also be used to synthesize prostaglandins, phospholipids, and vitamins, among many other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • If unable to synthesize sufficient fatty acids the parasite is unable to form the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is imperative to a successful invasion of host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tuberculosis
  • Molecular dissection of the role of two methyltransferases in the biosynthesis of phenolglycolipids and phthiocerol dimycoserosate in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (nih.gov)
  • Slama N et al (2016) The changes in mycolic acid structures caused by hadC mutation have a dramatic effect on virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (ipbs.fr)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recently reported that one-third of the global population is infected with M. tuberculosis [ 2 ] and in 2010 documented 8.8 million new cases of TB, 650 000 of which were infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, contributing to the 1.4 million deaths reported globally (equivalent to 3 800 deaths a day) for that year. (hindawi.com)
  • Other names in common use include: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, evades effective immune clearance through encapsulation, especially with mycolic acids that are particularly resistant to the normal degradative processes of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The predominant product of FASN is a 16-carbon FA, palmitate, but FASN may also produce smaller amounts of myristate, laureate, and even shorter-chain FAs ( 1 )( 2 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Both are efficient up to acyl-ACPs with a 14 carbon chain, at which point synthase II is the more efficient choice for further carbon additions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-covalent interactions of S-(-)-proline with the surfaces of carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and graphite) change the nucleophilic-electrophilic and acid-base properties of the amino acid, thus tuning its activity and selectivity in the organocatalytic Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert (HPESW) reaction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Poly (HA MCL) from hydroxy fatty acids with medium chain lengths including six to 14 carbon atoms, can be made for example, by Pseudomonas putida. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • This report presents a new modification of the isoniazid (INH) structure linked with different anilines via a carbonyl group obtained by two synthetic procedures and with N-substituted 5-(pyridine-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amines prepared by their cyclisation. (ebscohost.com)
  • nitric oxide sy
  • Imbalance between xanthine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways underlies mechanoenergetic uncoupling in the failing heart. (csjournal.ca)
  • Activation of CB1 enhances AMT activity through increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and subsequent increase of NO production, whereas AMT activity instead is reduced by activation of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor, which inhibits NOS and NO release, also suggesting the distribution of these receptors may drive AEA directional transport through the blood-brain barrier and other endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • An immunocytokine of the human monoclonal antibody fragment F16 (scFv) against the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C fused, via a short 5-amino acid linker, to a recombinant form of the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • An amino acid analog radiolabeled with fluorine F 18, a positron emitting isotope, used as a tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). (newyorkoncology.com)
  • Radiolableled amino acid-based agents are useful in PET brain tumor imaging because F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), commonly used in PET tumor imaging, is relatively insensitive for detecting tumors in the brain due the high levels of glycolytic metabolism in the normal cortex and to a lesser extent in white matter. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • These inhibitors modify key amino acid residues needed for enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli IleRS, a single amino acid mutation was shown to alter mupirocin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of their molecular biology, COX-1 and COX-2 are of similar molecular weight, approximately 70 and 72 kDa, respectively, and having 65% amino acid sequence homology and near-identical catalytic sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The possibility that the entire molecule is assembled as a single polyketide with a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation inserting an oxygen into the carbon backbone has been ruled out because C1 of monic acid and C9' of 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid are both derived from C1 of acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • This type of inhibition can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of substrate (Vmax remains constant), i.e., by out-competing the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of inhibition causes Vmax to decrease (maximum velocity decreases as a result of removing activated complex) and Km to decrease (due to better binding efficiency as a result of Le Chatelier's principle and the effective elimination of the ES complex thus decreasing the Km which indicates a higher binding affinity). (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of inhibition can be reduced, but not overcome by increasing concentrations of substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most significant difference between the isoenzymes, which allows for selective inhibition, is the substitution of isoleucine at position 523 in COX-1 with valine in COX-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • acyltransferase
  • The mupirocin cluster exhibits an atypical acyltransferase (AT) organization, in that there are only two AT domains, and both are found on the same protein, MmpC. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • At least four types of neurons, excited or inhibited by low or high glucose concentrations, can modulate their firing rate in response to variations in glucose concentrations ( 31 , 38 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The National Gene Bank at the Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, part of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences (ICGR-CAAS), Beijing, contains close to 24,000 soybean accessions, including wild soybean types. (intechopen.com)
  • Calcitriol (vitamin D) significantly inhibits the expression of the COX-2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human CysLTR1 gene maps to the X chromosome at position Xq13-Xq21, contains three exons with the entire open reading frame located in exon 3, and codes for a protein composed of 337 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS2
  • PTGS2 (COX-2) was discovered in 1991 by the Daniel Simmons laboratory at Brigham Young University. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS2 (COX-2) exists as a homodimer, each monomer with a molecular mass of about 70 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tertiary and quaternary structures of PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) enzymes are almost identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) are bifunctional enzymes that carry out two consecutive chemical reactions in spatially distinct but mechanistically coupled active sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the two isozymes found in humans, PTGS1 and PTGS2, are frequently called COX-1 and COX-2 in the medical literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetase
  • 256 mg/L). Resistance in the MuL strains is probably due to mutations in the organism's wild-type isoleucinyl-tRNA synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo studies in Escherichia coli demonstrated that pseudomonic acid inhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase (IleRS). (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-inflammatory
  • The lipoxins and epi-lipoxins are potent anti-inflammatory agents and may contribute to the overall activities of the two COX's as well as to aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be of varying lengths and saturations but 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. (hmdb.ca)
  • inducible expression
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • The response vector supplied with these Tet-On 3G tetracycline-inducible expression systems express two transgenes from our premium TRE3G inducible promoter ( P TRE3G ). (clontech.com)
  • known
  • PAR-2 (also known as thrombin receptor-like 1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a protease-activated receptor. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSAIDs
  • Some other COX-2 selective NSAIDs, such as celecoxib, and etoricoxib, are still on the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The guanidine group of arginine residues condense with malondialdehyde to give 2-aminopyrimidines. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGG2
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. (hmdb.ca)
  • The proton gradient which is formed can then be used to generate chemical energy by ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open the quinine with the molecular oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cysLT receptors include cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • www.cyberlipid.org, www.wikipedia.org)TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. (hmdb.ca)
  • hydroxyl
  • Also present in mupirocin are pseudomonic acid B with an additional hydroxyl group at C8, pseudomonic acid C with a double bond between C10 and C11, instead of the epoxide of PA-A, and pseudomonic acid D with a double bond at C4` and C5` in the 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid portion of mupirocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Cell Death and Disease (2018) 9:471 Page 2 of 13 apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1), and murine molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of meta- protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38)/maternal bolic homeostasis by TGF-β signaling remain poorly 1,7,8 embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) , suggesting understood. (deepdyve.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody portion of the F16-IL2 fusion protein binds to tumor cells expressing the tumor associated antigen (TAA) tenascin-C. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of the fusion protein stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and neutrophils and induces T-cell antitumor cellular immune responses thereby selectively killing tenascin-C-expressing tumor cells. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • Tenascin-C, a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, is expressed in many cancer cell types. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • This type of negative feedback slows the production line when products begin to build up and is an important way to maintain homeostasis in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • CysLTR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor that links to and when bound to its CysLT ligands activates the Gq alpha subunit and/or Ga subunit of its coupled G protein, depending on the cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. (hmdb.ca)
  • GLUT2 is present in brain areas involved in the control of food intake, whereas the exact nature of GLUT2-expressing cells remains unclear since GLUT2 has been identified in neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes ( 1 , 2 , 17 , 28 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • aspirin
  • COX-2 is upregulated when COX-1 is suppressed with aspirin, which is thought to be important in enhancing mucosal defense mechanisms and lessening the erosion by aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • different
  • Averantin is converted to averufin via a two different enzymes, a hydroxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Malondialdehyde mainly exists as the enol: CH2(CHO)2 → HOC(H)=CH-CHO In organic solvents, the cis-isomer is favored, whereas in water the trans-isomer predominates. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The prophylaxis composition, comprising at least one form of elemental magnesium and a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid may also provide cardiac protection and prevent cardiovascular diseases. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and (ii) a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • According to some embodiments, a method of providing cardiac protection and preventing cardiovascular disease in a patient in need thereof includes administration of a prophylaxis composition, wherein the prophylaxis composition is a single dosage form comprising at least one form of elemental magnesium and a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Lyophilized from an antibody solution containing 1% BSA in PBS and 0.05% NaN 3 .To use, reconstitute in 1.0 mL H 2 O (final concentration 100 µg/mL). (clontech.com)