• Background- The CYP4A11 arachidonic acid monooxygenase oxidizes endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a metabolite with renovascular and tubular functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CYP4A arachidonic acid (AA) monooxygenases oxidize endogenous AA to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (ahajournals.org)
  • The prostaglandins made from arachidonic acid stored in the cell membrane, are probably the most well known group of these local hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTGS2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, hydrogen is abstracted from carbon 13 of arachidonic acid, and then two molecules of oxygen are added by the PTGS2 (COX-2), giving PGG2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, aspirin-treated COX-2 metabolizes arachidonic acid almost exclusively to 15(R)-HETE which product can be further metabolized to epi-lipoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not consistent with the results of the isotope experiments of arachidonic acid oxygenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of cell membrane arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) to omega-6 prostaglandin and omega-6 leukotriene eicosanoids during the inflammatory cascade provides many targets for pharmaceutical drugs to impede the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis, asthma, arthritis, vascular disease, thrombosis, immune-inflammatory processes, and tumor proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many steps in formation and action of omega-6 prostaglandins from omega-6 arachidonic acid proceed more vigorously than the corresponding competitive steps in formation and action of omega-3 hormones from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the anti-mania medications used to treat bipolar disorder work by targeting the arachidonic acid cascade in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • arachidonic acid + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 12R-HpETE Hydroperoxy-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as 12R-HETE readily breakdown through non-enzymatic transformations in which the two oxygen atoms of the hydroperoxy residue rearrange to form PUFAs containing one hydroxyl (also termed alcohol) residue and one epoxide residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to arachidonic acid, ALOX12B metabolizes linoleic acid (LA) to 9(R)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HpODE): LA + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 9R-HpODE. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975, he and his colleagues showed that the brains of newborn mammals and adult poikilotherms accumulate free arachidonic acid sluggishly, correlating with the known resistance of these animals to anoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • His laboratory further supported these concepts by demonstrating a deficit of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid in Usher's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fish oils provide alternative fatty acids to arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intermediate arachidonic acid is created from diacylglycerol via phospholipase-A2, then brought to either the cyclooxygenase pathway or the lipoxygenase pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandins are produced following the sequential oxygenation of arachidonic acid, DGLA or EPA by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and terminal prostaglandin synthases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nobel laureate, Bengt I. Samuelsson, and colleagues first described 5(S)-HETE in 1976 as a metabolite of arachidonic acid made by rabbit neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since a previously discovered arachidonic acid metabolite made by neutrophils, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), also stimulates human neutrophil calcium rises, chemotaxis, and auto-aggregation and is structurally similar to 5(S)-HETE in being a 5-(S)-hydroxy-eicosateraenoate, it was assumed that 5-(S)-HETE stimulated cells through the same cell surface receptors as those used by (LTB4) viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5(S)-HETE is a product of the cellular metabolism of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid), by ALOX5 (also termed arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LO, and 5-LOX). (wikipedia.org)
  • ALOX5 metabolizes arachidonic acid to its hydroperoxide derivative, arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide i.e. 5S-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S)-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-(S)-HpETE may then be release and rapidly converted to 5(S)-HETE by ubiquitous cellular peroxidases: Arachidonic acid) + O2 → 5(S)-HpETE → 5(S)-HETE Alternatively, 5(S)-HpETE may be further metabolized to its epoxide, 5(6)-oxido-eicosatetraenoic acid viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first found as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by human and bovine platelets through their 12S-lipoxygenase (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike hormones which are secreted by cells, travel in the circulation to alter the behavior of distant cells, and thereby act as Endocrine signalling agents, these arachidonic acid metabolites act locally as Autocrine signalling and/or Paracrine signaling agents to regulate the behavior of their cells of origin or of nearby cells, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALOX12 metabolizes arachidonic acid almost exclusively to 12(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HpETE or 12S-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • it metabolizes arachidonic acid to 12(R)-HpETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE and to a lesser extent 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrenoic acid (also termed 12-HHT, 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid, or 12(S)-HHTrE) is a 17 carbon metabolite of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first detected and structurally defined by P. Wlodawer, Bengt I. Samuelsson, and M. Hamberg as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by microsomes (i.e. endoplasmic reticulum) isolated from sheep seminal vesicle glands and by intact human platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 metabolize arachidonic acid to the 15-hydroperoxy, 20 carbon prostaglandin (PG) intermediate, PGG2, and then to the 15-hydroxy, 20 carbon intermediate, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). (wikipedia.org)
  • 12-HHT is a particularly abundant product of these pro-clotting responses, accounting for about one third of the total amount of arachidonic acid metabolites formed by physiologically stimulated human platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • associated with these changes, the differentiated macrophage metabolized arachidonic acid to 12-HHT by a CYP2S1-dependent mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • it did not, however, alter arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cell types (e.g. platelets) metabolize arachidonic acid to the stereoisomer of 15(S)-HpETE, 15(R)-HpETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both stereoisomers may also be formed as result of the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cellular microsomes or as a result of arachidonic acid auto-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The freed arachidonic acid is then converted to 15-hydroperoxy/hydroxy products by one or more of the following five pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • A closely related set of 15-lipoxygenase metabolites are derived from anandamide (i.e. arachidonic acid containing ethanolamine esterified to its carboxy residue). (wikipedia.org)
  • As indicated in the following Biochemstry section, there are 4 types of chemically distinct eoxins that are made serially from the 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eoxin-forming pathway sequence is as follows: Arachidonic acid → 15(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E-eicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HPETE)) via 15-LOX-1 or possibly 15-LOX-2, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • HO2) residue to arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5S-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • also termed 5-oxo-ETE and 5-oxoETE) is a Nonclassic eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid and the most potent naturally occurring member of the 5-HETE family of cell signaling agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-Hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase or 5-HEDH) to form 5-oxo-ETE: a) Phospholipid-bound arachidonic acid → free arachidonic acid b) Free arachidonic acid + O2 → 5(S)-HpETE c) 5(S)-HpETE → 5(S)-HETE d) 5(S)-HETE + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 5-oxo-ETE + NADPH 5-HEDH has little or no ability to metabolize the R stereoisomer of 5(S)-HETE viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAS II has been extensively studied in the Escherichia coli model system, and the recent explosion of bioinformatic information has accelerated the investigation of the pathway in other organisms, mostly important human pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. (plos.org)
  • He Y, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Sun C (2013) Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway. (plos.org)
  • The fatty acid synthetic pathway is the principal route for the production of membrane phospholipid acyl chains in bacterial and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grzegorzewicz AE et al (2012) A common mechanism of inhibition of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway by isoxyl and thiacetazone. (ipbs.fr)
  • Most of the acetyl-CoA which is converted into fatty acids is derived from carbohydrates via the glycolytic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycolytic pathway also provides the glycerol with which three fatty acids can combine (by means of ester bonds) to form triglycerides (also known as "triacylglycerols", to distinguish them from fatty "acids" - or simply as "fat"), the final product of the lipogenic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The salvage pathway re-utilizes long-chain sphingoid bases to form ceramide through the action of ceramide synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study has shown that the anthraquinone component of lac dye also possess antineoplastic or anticancer effect It is proposed that lac insects employ polyketide pathway catalysed by polyketide synthase to produce laccaic acid D, a common precursor molecule for the biosynthesis of other lac dye constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pimeloyl-CoA, could be produced by a modified fatty acid pathway involving a malonyl thioester as the starter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosynthesis of plantensimycin has been studied by Singh Group using isotope incorporation experiments to show that the benzoic ring is produced from pyruvate and acetate via the TCA cycle, while the C-17 tetracyclic enone acid core is produced from the non-mevalonate terpenoid pathway, the pathway is shown as below. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is used to break down fatty acids for their carbon and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • p53 activates hexokinase 2 (HK2) that converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) which enters glycolysis to produce ATP, or enters the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild-type p53 supports the expression of PTEN (gene), which inhibits the PI3K pathway, thereby suppressing glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic reconstruction from an EBPR reactor enriched with CAP IIA revealed it to contain two different types of phosphate transporters, the high-affinity Pst and low-affinity Pit transporters, as well as using the Embden-Meyerhof (EM) glycogen degradation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucose-6-phosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite these findings, it is considered unlikely that the 2-carbon acetyl-CoA derived from the oxidation of fatty acids would produce a net yield of glucose via the citric acid cycle - however, acetyl-CoA can be converted into pyruvate and lactate through the ketogenic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our preliminary data demonstrate measurable amounts of free fatty acids and cholesteryl esters in the low ?g/ml range in unstimulated cell culture supernatants, whereby the constitutive secretion of cholesteryl esters appears to diminish with repeated passaging. (calstatela.edu)
  • In support of this line of thinking, it has long been known that, in addition to hyperglycemia, the type 2 diabetic individual almost invariably manifests a serious breakdown in lipid dynamics, often reflected by elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TG), together with excessive deposition of fat in various tissues including the muscle bed ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutations in the liver isoform (GYS2), causes fasting hypoglycemia, high blood ketones, increased free fatty acids and low levels of alanine and lactate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once freed from glycerol, the free fatty acids enter the blood, which transports them, attached to plasma albumin, throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular dissection of the role of two methyltransferases in the biosynthesis of phenolglycolipids and phthiocerol dimycoserosate in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. (nih.gov)
  • Discovery of a novel dehydratase of the fatty acid synthase type II critical for ketomycolic acid biosynthesis and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections cause 2 million deaths every year and latently persist in over 1 billion individuals worldwide ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Grzegorzewicz AE et al (2015) Covalent modification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis FAS-II dehydratase by Isoxyl and Thiacetazone. (ipbs.fr)
  • In these bacteria, the FAS I system produces palmitic acid, and cooperates with the FAS II system to produce a greater diversity of lipid products. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, to the date, there is no detailed study for describing the effect of G. lucidum spores on oxidative stress, blood glucose level and lipid compositions in animal models of type 2 diabetic rats, in particular the effect on the gene expression profiles associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, GLSP treatment was also associated with the improvement of blood lipid compositions through the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the type 2 diabetic rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is easily deprotonated to give the sodium salt of the enolate (m.p. 245 °C). Malondialdehyde results from lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandin-D synthase is a sigma class glutathione-S-transferase family member. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional activation of the human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase gene in megakaryoblastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, they found that PAF activates transcription of the inducible prostaglandin synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The names "prostaglandin synthase (PHS)", "prostaglandin synthetase (PHS)", and "prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthetase (PES)" are older terms still sometimes used to refer to COX. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while COX-1 and COX-2 are both located in the blood vessels, stomach and the kidneys, prostaglandin levels are increased by COX-2 in scenarios of inflammation and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we accept the paradigm of FASN dysfunction as a previously unrecognized link between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, the use of insulin sensitizers in parallel with forthcoming FASN inhibitors should be a valuable therapeutic approach that, in association with lifestyle interventions, would concurrently improve energy-flux status, ameliorate insulin sensitivity, and alleviate the risk of lipogenic carcinomas. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Inhibitors of fatty acid synthase for prostate cancer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Kridel, Steven J. "Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer" report written by Wake Forest University under grant from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (44 pages) (report date: May 31, 2010) (made available to the public: May 2011). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The model obtained can be useful as a support tool in the design of new MMP-2 inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In silico screening for identification of fatty acid synthase inhibitors and evaluation of their antiproliferative activity using human cancer cell lines. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the attempt to control the rise of type 2 diabetes, new treatments such as these 11β-HSD1 inhibitors and others that focus on mechanisms relating to cortisol regulation may have favorable results. (kon.org)
  • PGHSs are targets for NSAIDs and PTGS2 (COX-2) specific inhibitors called coxibs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those that are specific to the COX-2 isozyme are called COX-2 inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical COX inhibitors are not selective and inhibit all types of COX. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because COX-2 is usually specific to inflamed tissue, there is much less gastric irritation associated with COX-2 inhibitors, with a decreased risk of peptic ulceration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caution should be exercised in combining low dose aspirin with COX-2 inhibitors due to potential increased damage to the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • COX-2 inhibitors have been found to increase the risk of atherothrombosis even with short-term use. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2006 analysis of 138 randomised trials and almost 150 000 participants showed that selective COX-2 inhibitors are associated with a moderately increased risk of vascular events, mainly due to a twofold increased risk of myocardial infarction, and also that high-dose regimens of some traditional NSAIDs (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen, but not naproxen) are associated with a similar increase in risk of vascular events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depsides as non-redox inhibitors of leukotriene B4 biosynthesis and HaCaT cell growth, 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP is represented as sticks, with two manganese ions shown as spheres, and the inhibitor peptide is shown as a red line. (asm.org)
  • Using cDNA expression array analysis, a substantial difference in key tumor-related gene expression was found between chemically induced mice treated or not with PARP inhibitor and also between wild-type and parp-1 knockout mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2012). Our previous study demonstrated that PM2.5 exposure led to hyperglycemia and IR, which were accompanied by hypothalamic inflammation evidenced by increased mRNA levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), Inhibitor kappa B kinase 2 (IKK2), and enhanced microglial/astrocyte reactivity (Song et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • More and more attention is paid to omega-3 fatty acids because of their potential activities in preventing cardiovascular events. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Competitive interactions with the omega-3 fatty acids affect the relative storage, mobilization, conversion and action of the omega-3 and omega-6 eicosanoid precursors (see Essential fatty acid interactions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some medical research suggests that excessive levels of omega-6 fatty acids from seed oils relative to certain omega-3 fatty acids may increase the probability of a number of diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the gene for a mitochondrially targeted mtFabD was ectopically expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mct1 mutant cells lacking the corresponding mitochondrial malonyl-CoA transferase Mct1p, allowing the mutants to recover their abilities to respire on glycerol and synthesize lipoic acid. (hindawi.com)
  • Homologue numbers of each type II FAS gene expressing in developing peanut seeds varied from 1 in KASII, KASIII and HD to 5 in ENR. (ias.ac.in)
  • Gene editing and deletion to enhance insulin signaling and energy expenditure in type 2 diabetes and obesity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Experiments in our laboratory are currently devoted to developing CRISPR- and siRNA-based delivery particles that can beneficially alter gene expression in adipocytes, hepatocytes and other cell types. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition to CYP4A11 , which encodes a renal 20-HETE synthase in humans, 19,20 we and others recently identified a second CYP4A gene, CYP4A22 . (ahajournals.org)
  • PZA is a prodrug of the pharmacologically active agent pyrazinoic acid (POA), which is formed upon hydrolysis of the amide by a mycobacterial pyrazinamidase encoded by the pncA gene ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPAR γ2) gene expression in the bone of offspring born from the HF-LCD was 7.1-folds higher than the LF-HCD-fed mothers ( p = 0.004). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding a FabH-like, type III ketosynthase (KS), located upstream of mlsA1, encodes a putative "joinase" (MUP045), and a type II thioesterase (TE II) gene (MUP038) is located between mlsA2 and mlsB. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed]Signs of acute hypoglycemia may be present, including the following: Lethargy Apathy Jitteriness Diaphoresis Tachycardia Pallor Nausea and vomiting Headache Mental confusion Visual disturbances Dysarthria Hypotonia Ataxia Seizures Coma Glycogen-storage disease type 0 is caused by genetic defects in the gene that codes for liver glycogen synthetase (GYS2), which is located on chromosome band 12p12.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A different gene (GYS1, 138570) encodes muscle glycogen synthetase, which has normal activity in patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0A. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases, ALOX12B and ALOX15B. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcitriol (vitamin D) significantly inhibits the expression of the COX-2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO, 12-LOX, ALO12, or platelet type 12-lipoxygenase) is encoded by the ALOX12 gene and expressed primarily in platelets and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene map locus 19q13.12 BCKDHA: Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide (maple syrup urine disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain experiments have also suggested the presence of "fatty acid transport tunnels" within the beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase domain that lead to one of many "fatty acid cavities", which essentially acts as the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase is to produce fatty acids of various lengths for use by the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although glycogen synthase deficiency does not result in storage of extra glycogen in the liver, it is often classified as a glycogen storage disease because it is another defect of glycogen storage and can cause similar problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common clinical history in patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) is that of an infant or child with symptomatic hypoglycemia or seizures that occur before breakfast or after an inadvertent fast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycogen-storage disease type 0 affects only the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutational studies of patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0 do not demonstrate correlations between genotype and phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0, fasting hypoglycemia occurs within a few hours after a meal because of the limited stores of hepatic glycogen and inadequate gluconeogenesis to maintain normoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0 have normal-to-increased response to glucagon in the fed state, with hyperglycemia and lactic acidemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically, patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) have an anion gap in the reference range and no acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0, hyperlipidemia is absent or mild and proportional to the degree of fasting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycosomes in the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum make use of its glycogen synthase and phosphorylase phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 PSSM is a category for disorders that lead to abnormal deposition of glycogen in the skeletal muscles of the horse that is not due to mutations in GSY1 or GBE1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and fatty acid catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, mutant yeast cells expressing a mitochondrially targeted form of mycobacterial mtFabD were compared to an otherwise isogenic wild-type strain for growth, respiration, and lipoic acid production, and the implications are discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • Yeast fatty acyl synthase belongs to the Type I FAS and was the first of Type I FAS to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, yeast FAS is incredibly unique due to its structural complexity, which contains 48 functional centers for one α6β6 complex and can efficiently performs 6 fatty acid syntheses separately at one time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structure of yeast fatty acid synthase has also been derived, showing both alpha and beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast-type FAS (yFAS) assembles into a barrel-shaped structure of more than 2 MDa molecular weight. (rsc.org)
  • Selective reactions of azide-substituted α-diazo amides with olefins and alcohols using rhodium(II) catalysts" The Journal of Organic Chemistry 51(26):5362-5367 (1986) (Abstract Only). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Nucleic Acids Res, 1999 Nov 15. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (ipbs.fr)
  • Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids is a powerful tool for studying functional traits of microbial populations within complex communities, but SIP involves a number of technical challenges. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glyoxylate condenses with acetyl-CoA (a step catalyzed by malate synthase), yielding malate. (wikipedia.org)
  • C2H4O2(acetic acid) + CoA + ATP → Acetyl-CoA + AMP + PPi (Because the Gibbs energy is a state function, we skip the formation of Acetyl-CoA (step 3), for lack of thermodynamic values. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when using acetyl alcohol as the acyl acceptor, AWAT1 prefers saturated acyl groups, while AWAT2 shows activity with all four acyl-CoAs and performs two times better with unsaturated acyl-CoAs than with saturated ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time. (wikipedia.org)