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  • coli
  • The crystal structure of β‐ketoacyl synthase II from Escherichia coli has been determined with the multiple isomorphous replacement method and refined at 2.4 Å resolution. (embopress.org)
  • Further examination of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthases I and II of E. coli revealed that both are homodimeric, but synthase II is slightly larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids is a powerful tool for studying functional traits of microbial populations within complex communities, but SIP involves a number of technical challenges. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • FASN
  • Background: An emerging paradigm supports the notion that deregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN)-catalyzed de novo FA biogenesis could play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases sharing the hallmark of insulin-resistance. (aaccjnls.org)
  • If we accept the paradigm of FASN dysfunction as a previously unrecognized link between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, the use of insulin sensitizers in parallel with forthcoming FASN inhibitors should be a valuable therapeutic approach that, in association with lifestyle interventions, would concurrently improve energy-flux status, ameliorate insulin sensitivity, and alleviate the risk of lipogenic carcinomas. (aaccjnls.org)
  • There are 2 basic naturally occurring types of FASN architecture. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The possible role of mitochondrial type-II FASN in obesity and insulin resistance has not yet been explored. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Mammalian FASN consists of 2 identical 270-kD polypeptide chains, each comprising all 7 required domains (i.e., beta-ketoacyl synthase, malonyl/acetyltransferase, dehydrase, enoyl reductase, β-ketoacyl reductase, acyl carrier protein, and thioesterase) that assembles into homodimers for enzymatic activity ( 14 )( 15 )( 16 )( 17 )( 18 )( 19 )( 20 )( 21 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Fatty acid synthase ( FAS ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The genes responsible for the production of zwittermicin A are located on a 16 kb cluster containing nine orfs and a self resistant gene zmaR, a gene that encodes an acylation enzyme that deactivate zwittermicin A. The hybrid synthase used in zwittermicin A production utilizes modified extender units such as hydroxymalonyl-ACP, aminomalonyl-ACP and 2,3-diaminopropionate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type II tends to be a more dissociable complex with monofunctional enzyme domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dominant enzyme in the KS1 family is 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (KAS III), also known as 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase III and β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, and is defined as EC 2.3.1.180. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the following reaction: very-long-chain acyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA ⇒ very-long-chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA + CoA + CO2 It is an elongase that appears to be involved in the production of very-long-chain fatty acids that are 26 carbons and longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a 6-methylsalicylic-acid synthase (EC 2.3.1.165) is an polyketide synthase that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 6-methylsalicylate + 4 CoA + 3 CO2 + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, NADPH, and H+, whereas its 5 products are 6-methylsalicylate, CoA, CO2, NADP+, and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • One hallmark of nonribosomal peptide antibiotics is the presence of D-amino acids, often in substantial abundance. (asmscience.org)
  • Acetyl coenzyme A, shikimate, and amino acids are major secondary metabolite building units. (asm.org)
  • Shikimate is a precursor of aromatic compounds, while diverse peptides are derived from amino acids ( 30 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Thereafter the glucose that is released into the blood by the liver for general use by the body tissues, has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivatives
  • As a result, microbial fatty acid derivatives are emerging as a promising renewable energy alternative to fossil fuel derived transportation fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iterative PKSs (IPKSs) can be still further subdivided: NR-PKSs - non-reducing PKSs, the products of which are true polyketides PR-PKSs - partially reducing PKSs FR-PKSs - fully reducing PKSs, the products of which are fatty acid derivatives Each type I polyketide-synthase module consists of several domains with defined functions, separated by short spacer regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • On the other hand, each enzymatic activity (Condensation reaction, Reduction Reaction, Dehydration reaction) is found as a discrete protein in type II systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • streptomyces
  • Daunorubicin is more abundantly found as a natural product because it is produced by a number of different wild type strains of streptomyces. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, only one known non-wild type species, streptomyces peucetius subspecies cesius ATCC 27952, was initially found to be capable of producing the more widely used doxorubicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anthracycline skeleton of doxorubicin (DXR) is produced by a Type II polyketide synthase (PKS) in streptomyces peucetius. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesize
  • Fatty acids can also be used to synthesize prostaglandins, phospholipids, and vitamins, among many other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • If unable to synthesize sufficient fatty acids the parasite is unable to form the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is imperative to a successful invasion of host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediates
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxylic
  • however, instead of the carboxylic acid typically found in catalytic triads, the main chain carbonyl of Gln 250 serves as a hydrogen bond acceptor in an interaction with His 201. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon forming the aldehyde in the ring opening step, it is oxidized to form the carboxylic acid and subsequently a decarboxylation event occurs to close the ring, forming the six-member ether ring system seen in demethylsterigmatocystin. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycerol
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • When only two fatty acids combine with glycerol and the third alcohol group is phosphorylated with a group such as phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium
  • Structure of Type-I Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase at 3.3 angstrom resolution. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Other names in common use include: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, evades effective immune clearance through encapsulation, especially with mycolic acids that are particularly resistant to the normal degradative processes of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Genes encoding for the seven component hybrid synthase responsible for the assembly of the backbone is likely located on the largest gene, orf8. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric oxide sy
  • Imbalance between xanthine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways underlies mechanoenergetic uncoupling in the failing heart. (csjournal.ca)
  • Activation of CB1 enhances AMT activity through increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and subsequent increase of NO production, whereas AMT activity instead is reduced by activation of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor, which inhibits NOS and NO release, also suggesting the distribution of these receptors may drive AEA directional transport through the blood-brain barrier and other endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • An immunocytokine of the human monoclonal antibody fragment F16 (scFv) against the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C fused, via a short 5-amino acid linker, to a recombinant form of the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • An amino acid analog radiolabeled with fluorine F 18, a positron emitting isotope, used as a tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). (newyorkoncology.com)
  • Radiolableled amino acid-based agents are useful in PET brain tumor imaging because F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), commonly used in PET tumor imaging, is relatively insensitive for detecting tumors in the brain due the high levels of glycolytic metabolism in the normal cortex and to a lesser extent in white matter. (newyorkoncology.com)
  • These inhibitors modify key amino acid residues needed for enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli IleRS, a single amino acid mutation was shown to alter mupirocin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of their molecular biology, COX-1 and COX-2 are of similar molecular weight, approximately 70 and 72 kDa, respectively, and having 65% amino acid sequence homology and near-identical catalytic sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The possibility that the entire molecule is assembled as a single polyketide with a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation inserting an oxygen into the carbon backbone has been ruled out because C1 of monic acid and C9' of 9-hydroxy-nonanoic acid are both derived from C1 of acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGG2
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • This type of inhibition can be overcome by sufficiently high concentrations of substrate (Vmax remains constant), i.e., by out-competing the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of inhibition causes Vmax to decrease (maximum velocity decreases as a result of removing activated complex) and Km to decrease (due to better binding efficiency as a result of Le Chatelier's principle and the effective elimination of the ES complex thus decreasing the Km which indicates a higher binding affinity). (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of inhibition can be reduced, but not overcome by increasing concentrations of substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. (hmdb.ca)
  • The proton gradient which is formed can then be used to generate chemical energy by ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • www.cyberlipid.org, www.wikipedia.org)TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. (hmdb.ca)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. (hmdb.ca)
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • production
  • This type of negative feedback slows the production line when products begin to build up and is an important way to maintain homeostasis in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • The prophylaxis composition, comprising at least one form of elemental magnesium and a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid may also provide cardiac protection and prevent cardiovascular diseases. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • According to some embodiments, a method of providing cardiac protection and preventing cardiovascular disease in a patient in need thereof includes administration of a prophylaxis composition, wherein the prophylaxis composition is a single dosage form comprising at least one form of elemental magnesium and a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • several
  • the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a membrane monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mupirocin is a mixture of several pseudomonic acids, with pseudomonic acid A (PA-A) constituting greater than 90% of the mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • However, oxygenation of 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid to 11-(S )-hydroxyeicosa-5,8,12,14-tetraenoic acid is not consistent with the generation of a carbanion intermediate because it would eliminate fluoride to form a conjugated diene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PKS folds the polyketide in a particular way to induce cyclization to form the anthraquinone norsolorinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • At least four types of neurons, excited or inhibited by low or high glucose concentrations, can modulate their firing rate in response to variations in glucose concentrations ( 31 , 38 , 41 ). (physiology.org)