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  • fats
  • The leitmotif of his work was the enzymatic utilization of chemical-bond-energy from degradation of foodstuffs (essentially, glucose from glycolysis) for the biosynthetic processes involving phosphates and vitamin-derived coenzymes, leading to condensed biomacromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, fats, and their conjugates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the liver (4) bile is produced which emulsifies fats and neutralises stomach acid making the conditions right for the enzymes in the small intestine. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Bile is produced in the liver to neutralise the stomach acid and emulsifies fats. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The main function of bile acids is to allow digestion of dietary fats and oils by acting as a surfactant that emulsifies them into micelles, allowing them to be colloidally suspended in the chyme before further processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Glutamine-consuming tissues, such as the GI tract, the liver and the immune system, use glutamine for the synthesis of nucleotides, proteins and amino sugars. (earthturns.com)
  • Intestinal mucosal cells need glutamine as a nitrogen donor for the biosynthesis of a number of important compounds, including nucleotides needed for cell division, amino sugars for building the glycosaminoglycans of intestinal mucous, amino acids that are crucial for protein synthesis as well as for an energy source. (earthturns.com)
  • Chloroplasts in plants function as solar panels, transforming the energy of the visible spectrum of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, cellulose and ATP, whereas, animal mitochondria transform the stored chemical energy in the ingested sugars and starches, as well as fatty acids, into ATP. (urantia.org)
  • free amino
  • In addition, glutamine makes up to 60 percent of the free amino acids in the bones, making it an important supplement for fitness enthusiasts[ 4 ]. (sati.com)
  • Formation of the Schiff base linkage involves removing the oxygen atom from retinal and two hydrogen atoms from the free amino group of lysine, giving H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • The most striking functional groups responding to the shift to acidic pH were genes of the exopolysaccharide I biosynthesis as well as flagellar and chemotaxis genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine whether the naturally occurring amino acid threonine, a potential precursor for glycine biosynthesis in the spinal cord, has an effect on spasticity in multiple sclerosis, 26 ambulatory patients were entered into a randomized crossover trial. (thisisms.com)
  • Gastric
  • This functionality can be carried out because the secretin hormones are able to manipulate specific secretion of gastric acid and control it's pH properties by using various chemical buffers. (wikibooks.org)
  • Digestion
  • The experimental design which for their project was to target how a nervous system responded and regulate digestion processes. (wikibooks.org)
  • In a nutshell, digestion involves breaking down large food molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be passed into the blood and transported to the body's organs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Aside from the solid and hollow organs, the nervous and circulatory systems are also important in digestion, as are the bacteria that live in the gut. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixed acid ferment
  • Additionally, genes involved in mixed acid fermentation ( poxB , ackA ) were up-regulated in the biofilm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific transcriptomic fingerprints can be inferred for both planktonic and sessile cells, having the former a more active TCA cycle, while the mixed acid fermentation process dominate in the latter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • aspartate
  • Microbes growing poorly on amino acid substrates alanine, aspartate, serine, leucine, valine, and glycine can have their rate of growth dramatically increased by syntrophic H2 scavengers. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • One sulfhydryl-containing amino acid can scavenge up to four molecules of HOCl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • The structure is first created initially with a precursor which contains the a spacer, the secretin hormone itself, an N-terminal signal peptide, and a C-terminal peptide which contains 72 amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Just as carotenoids are the precursors of retinal, retinal is the precursor of the other forms of vitamin A. Retinal is interconvertible with retinol (ROL), the transport and storage form of vitamin A retinal + NADPH + H+ ⇌ retinol + NADP+ retinol + NAD+ ⇌ retinal + NADH + H+ catalyzed by retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Succinic acid has been shown to stimulate neural system recovery and bolster the immune system. (thisisms.com)
  • Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamine is an amino acid that is used as a building block for the body proteins, fuel for cells that line the gut, and fuel for immune cells, as well as to maintain nitrogen balance and prevent the burning of other amino acids for energy[ 8 , 38 ]. (sati.com)
  • Injuries, infections, cancer treatments, and surgeries tax the immune system and deplete glutamine from the body. (sati.com)
  • Severe emotional problems suppress the immune system, reduce thyroid function, and contribute to all problems, including acne. (litalee.com)
  • The plasma that filters through the capillaries into the interstitial fluid does not contain red blood cells or platelets as they are too large to pass through but can contain some white blood cells to help the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme is down-regulated by cholic acid, up-regulated by cholesterol and is inhibited by the actions of the ileal hormone FGF15/19. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to its sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, it is a dinucleotide that only differs from the house-keeping enzyme cofactor, NADP by a hydroxyl group (replacing the nicotinamide amino group) and yet this minor modification converts it into the most potent Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger yet described. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is generated from succinyl-CoA by the enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase in a GTP/ATP-producing step: Succinyl-CoA + NDP + Pi → Succinate + CoA + NTP Catalyzed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), succinate is subsequently oxidized to fumarate: Succinate + FAD → Fumarate + FADH2 SDH also participates in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, where it is known as respiratory Complex 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Once in the colon, FOS selectively feeds the beneficial symbiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, and other acid-producing bacteria. (earthturns.com)
  • The Type IV Pili System is a secretin that helps with the production and dismantling of extracellular fibers found on pathogenic/environmental bacteria. (wikibooks.org)
  • Because methylmercury is formed in aquatic systems and because it is not readily eliminated from organisms it is biomagnified in aquatic food chains from bacteria, to plankton, through macroinvertebrates, to herbivorous fish and to piscivorous (fish-eating) fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, hypochlorous acid is generated in activated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, and contributes to the destruction of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugation machinery of some bacteria (and archaeal flagella) is capable of transporting both DNA and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • electron microscopic localization of transport sites, Brain Res , 2AA:69-80 (1982). (springer.com)
  • The bulk of our ATP is made, and used by muscles, second is brain/heart so succinic acid is especially good for treating diseases of these system as it directly makes ATP in the electron transport chain. (thisisms.com)
  • Succinate is an essential component of the Krebs or citric acid cycle and serves an electron donor in the production of fumaric acid and FADH2. (thisisms.com)
  • The production of ATP via the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. (brainscape.com)
  • It is oxidized with loss of one electron to form a radical cation and then with loss of a second electron to form dehydroascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Obviously, the response to acidic pH is not based on a few specific genes, but involves whole sets of genes associated with various cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aqueous
  • Synthetic taurine is obtained by the ammonolysis of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • In 1937, the Nobel Prize for chemistry was awarded to Haworth for his work in determining the structure of ascorbic acid - shared with Paul Karrer, who received his award for work on vitamins - and the prize for Physiology or Medicine that year went to Albert Szent-Györgyi for his studies of the biological functions of L-ascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions: (CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− + H+ (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− → (CH2)2(CO2)22− + H+ The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • In situ injection of kainic acid: A new method for selectively lesioning neural cell bodies while sparing axons of passage. (springer.com)
  • In contrast to IP3 and cyclic ADP-ribose which predominantly mobilize Ca2+ from the neutral and abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, NAADP selectively targets acidic Ca2+ stores - usually less abundant than the ER but with a pivotal role that belies their size. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Sodium ions react very little with the hydroxide ions whereas the acetate ions combine with hydronium ions to produce acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the changes in gill morphology induced by dietary salt feeding on several aspects of gill function in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss maintained in fresh water with specific emphasis on Cl(-) uptake (J(IN) Cl(-) ) and acid-base regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • substances
  • The extracellular fluid provides the medium for the exchange of substances between the ECF and the cells, and this can take place through dissolving, mixing and transporting in the fluid medium. (wikipedia.org)