• The biological implications and the molecular mechanisms involved in cross-family interactions have now started to be elucidated and the examples illustrate potential roles in the bridging of biological processes. (wur.nl)
  • In the antibiotic-producing Streptomyces, several Wbls have important roles in the regulation of morphological differentiation, including WhiB, a protein that controls the initiation of sporulation septation and the founding member of the Wbl family. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Since these initial publications, it has become clear that the WRKY family is among the ten largest families of transcription factors in higher plants and that these transcription factors play key roles in regulating a number of plant processes including the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, germination, senescence, and some developmental processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This expansion of the R2R3-MYB family in plants supports the observation that many R2R3-MYB transcription factors play roles in plant-specific processes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We also report roles for FOXF-1 and ETS-1 transcription factors, as well as for an FGFR-like molecule, in the specification and maintenance of this cell type. (biologists.org)
  • The aim of this review is to provide a background on the biology of NF-κB and to highlight areas of the innate and adaptive immune response in which these transcription factors have a key regulatory function and to review what is currently known about their roles in resistance to infection, the host-pathogen interaction, and development of human disease. (asm.org)
  • This review will summarize current findings on the eight family members with known roles in orchestrating lymphocyte development: Bcl-6, PLZF, Th inducing POZ/Krüppel-like factor (ThPOK), PLZP, MAZR, BAZF, LRF, and Miz-1 ( Fig. 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • R2R3-MYB family members regulate plant-specific processes, such as the elaboration of specialized cell types, including xylem, guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs, and the biosynthesis of specialized branches of metabolism, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thus, the two TF families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other's transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a first step in determining the role played by R2R3-MYB family members in the emergence of lineage-specific innovations in the genus Populus , the entire Populus trichocarpa R2R3-MYB family was characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses, together with chromosome placement, showed that the expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family was not only attributable to whole genome duplication but also involved selective expansion of specific R2R3-MYB clades. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family prominently involved members with expression patterns that suggested a role in specific components of Populus life history, including wood formation and reproductive development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Key residues of the N-terminal HTH domain are more variable and this domain is thought to define the individual DNA binding specificities of the family members, while the C-terminal HTH is more conserved and provides improved binding affinity [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cortical thymocytes are not deficient in mRNA expression for any of the constitutive transcription factors that are known to be needed to drive c-Fos or FosB expression, so it is possible that the activity of these factors is developmentally regulated through a post-transcriptional mechanism. (caltech.edu)
  • The ETS family is divided into 12 subfamilies, which are listed below: All ETS family members are identified through a highly conserved DNA binding domain, the ETS domain, which is a winged helix-turn-helix structure that binds to DNA sites with a central GGA(A/T) DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific and dynamic gene expression strongly depends on transcription factor (TF) activity and most plant TFs function in a combinatorial fashion. (wur.nl)
  • The recognition of these strategies, shared by entire families of TFs, can provide useful clues to better characterize the function of members of these families. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, recent studies have highlighted a fundamental and nonredundant role for many BTB-ZF factors in the development and function of cells in the immune system. (jimmunol.org)
  • The NF-κB members dimerize to form homo- or heterodimers, which are associated with specific responses to different stimuli and differential effects on transcription. (asm.org)
  • consequently, there is great interest in identifying the virulence factors of A. flavus . (g3journal.org)
  • This suggests that the subfunctionalization of T-box classes was established at the onset of Metazoa through new interactions with cofactors, concomitantly with the diversification of the T-box family. (pnas.org)
  • The members of the family have been implicated in the development of different tissues as well as cancer progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, cross-family TF interactions expand the molecular toolbox for plants with additional mechanisms to control and fine-tune robust gene expression patterns and to adapt to their continuously changing environment. (wur.nl)
  • As the genetic loci of p45, nrf1, and nrf2 have been mapped close to those of hoxC, hoxB, and hoxD, respectively, the present study strongly argues for the idea that a single ancestral gene for the CNC family members may have been localized near the ancestral Hox cluster and have diverged to give rise to four closely related CNC factors through chromosome duplication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Granted that TFs within the same family are evolutionary closely related, they are likely regulated by common mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we summarize the major regulatory mechanisms characterized so far for WRKYs and bZIPs, two of the largest TF families in plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we summarize current findings concerning the BTB-ZF family members with a reported role in the immune system. (jimmunol.org)
  • Amongst members of the ETS family, there is extensive conservation in the DNA-binding ETS domain and, therefore, a lot of redundancy in DNA binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bHLH domain includes highly conserved Thr and Ser residues whose posphorylation has been demonstrated to affect dimer formation and DNA binding affinity in other TWIST family members (Firulli et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Myocardin is a SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, PIAS) domain transcription factor that associates with serum response factor (SRF) to potently enhance SRF-dependent transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Other domains are also present and vary from ETS member to ETS member, including the Pointed domain, a subclass of the SAM domain family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many other transcription factors, Hsfs have an N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and followed by an oligomerization domain (OD). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to corepressor recruitment, the BTB domain, and in some cases the ZF domain, also facilitate heterodimerization and homodimerization among the different gene family members. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, ETS factors, e.g. the vertebrate Etv1 and the invertebrate Ast-1, have been shown to be important players in the specification and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in both C. elegans and olfactory bulbs of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are important transcription factors (TFs) in protecting plants from damages caused by various stresses. (frontiersin.org)