• In response to Cu limitation, Arabidopsis master Cu homeostasis regulator SPL7 (SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like 7), similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Crr1 transcription factor [ 8 ], activates the expression of multiple genes that contain within their promoter repetitive Cu-responsive elements (CuREs) with a GTAC motif as the essential core sequence [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The relationships between genes from different genomes are naturally represented as a system of homologous families that include both orthologs and paralogs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Highly enriched among the Rbf2 targets were ribosomal protein genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • The functional significance of this finding was tested by assessing Rbf activity on ribosomal protein promoters and the endogenous genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • Rbf1 and Rbf2 significantly repressed expression of some ribosomal protein genes, although not all bound genes showed transcriptional effects. (sdbonline.org)
  • Interestingly, many ribosomal protein genes are similarly targeted in human cells, indicating that these interactions may be relevant for control of ribosome biosynthesis and growth. (sdbonline.org)
  • Meis homeodomain proteins function as Hox-cofactors by binding Pbx and Hox proteins to form multimeric complexes that control transcription of genes involved in development and differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in either gene lead to posterior transformations of embryonic segments, without affecting the expression of Hox genes, showing that both Exd and Hth are required for Hox protein function during fly development. (biologists.org)
  • An estimated 1 to 3% of functional eukaryotic genes encode protein kinases, suggesting that they are involved in many aspects of cellular regulation and metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Purification of protein kinases and their subsequent cloning, facilitated by the PCR and advances in homology-based cloning techniques, as well as functional analyses, including complementation of conditional yeast mutants and positional cloning of mutant plant genes, has already led to identification of more than 70 plant protein kinase genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This study opens the way to analyze the function of the proteins in Xenopus laevis oocytes, determine the tissue specific expression of the genes, recover insertion mutants, and determine the in planta function. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As part of a process called gene regulation, these chromatin proteins determine if information stored in a certain portion of the DNA is accessible - the genes are "turned on" - or inaccessible - the genes are "turned off. (uab.edu)
  • Our approach is to monitor all three HP1 proteins, and to manipulate not only single genes, but also combinations of genes. (uab.edu)
  • Moreover, an organism's complexity relates much better to the number of distinct domain architectures [ 3 ] and expansion in particular domain families [ 4 ] than to the number of genes in the organism. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • My research focused on three AraC family activators: Rns (activator of virulence genes in diarrhea-causing ETEC), VirF (activator of virulence genes in diarrhea-causing Shigella) and RhaR (activator of L-rhamnose catabolic operons in Escherichia coli). (ku.edu)
  • The InterPro annotation of families includes short name, name, abstract, GO terms and cross-references to specialized databases and protein s. (psu.edu)
  • Because CK1 isoforms are thought to be constitutively active protein kinases, the ability of FAM83 proteins to anchor CK1 isoforms may be an important mechanism for targeting CK1 activity to specific subcellular locations and substrates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is controlled by subcellular localization, interactions with inhibitory proteins, targeted degradation, or combinations of these mechanisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • As might be expected from this diversity of function, there is a large array of different protein kinases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Although each Vav isoform was tyrosine phosphorylated upon activation of representative receptor tyrosine kinases, integrin, and lymphocyte antigen receptors, we found unique aspects of Vav protein coupling in each receptor pathway. (asm.org)
  • Integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav proteins was not detected in nonhematopoietic cells unless the protein tyrosine kinase Syk was also expressed, suggesting that integrin activation of Vav proteins may be restricted to cell types that express particular tyrosine kinases. (asm.org)
  • In addition, some have been suggested to serve as scaffolds for Golgi-associated proteins such as kinases and motors. (rupress.org)
  • Since that discovery, NIMA-related kinases, or NEKs, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named NEK1 to NEK11 are expressed. (biologists.org)
  • Cell-cycle-dependent protein kinases, along with their counteracting phosphatases, regulate the phosphorylation status of many hundreds of substrate proteins that, in turn, dictate the events that orchestrate mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • The RSK (90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase) family comprises a group of highly related serine/threonine kinases that regulate diverse cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, survival and motility. (portlandpress.com)
  • For instance, mono-ubiquitination of transmembrane proteins, such as receptors for trophic factors and ligand-gated ion channels, often serves as an internalization signal and thereby modulating the activity of signaling pathways ( Hicke, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that a conserved family of proteins, fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins, is required for proper budding of LDs from the ER. (rupress.org)
  • Three of these proteins (golgin-84, giantin, and CASP) are anchored at the rims of Golgi cisternae by C-terminal transmembrane domains. (rupress.org)
  • Comparison of proteins encoded in seven complete genomes from five major phylogenetic lineages and elucidation of consistent patterns of sequence similarities allowed the delineation of 720 clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Each COG consists of individual orthologous proteins or orthologous sets of paralogs from at least three lineages. (sciencemag.org)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • This results in a family of orthologous proteins, usually with conserved sequence motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each HMM was constructed from an alignment of putative orthologous proteins from eight genomes ( E. coli MG1655, E. coli EDL933, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium LT2, S. enterica Typhi CT18, Y. pestis CO92, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 32953, Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 and Erwinia carotovora atroseptica SCRI1043) and used to scan 11 additional genomes for new members. (biology-online.org)
  • Binding studies in mammalian cells indicated that JNK increased binding between the Ajuba family proteins LIMD1 or WTIP and LATS1, a kinase within the Hippo pathway that inhibits the Yki homolog YAP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our understanding of how metals are detected by bacteria is exceptionally well advanced, and multiple families of cytoplasmic DNA -binding, metal-sensing transcriptional regulators have been characterised (ArsR-SmtB, MerR, CsoR-RcnR, CopY, DtxR , Fur , NikR). (rsc.org)
  • This review summarises the different families of bacterial metal-sensing transcriptional regulators and discusses current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of metal-regulated gene expression and the structural features of sensory metal- binding sites focusing on the ArsR-SmtB family. (rsc.org)
  • Hox proteins are transcriptional regulators that specify cell fate during early embryonic development and organogenesis (reviewed by Krumlauf, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • AraC family proteins are transcriptional regulators that are defined by the presence of a conserved DNA binding domain (DBD). (ku.edu)
  • Each of the eight FAM83 family members exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular localization and colocalized with specific CK1 isoforms in cultured cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each FAM83 protein exhibited a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution and colocalized with the CK1 isoform(s) to which it bound. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bioinformatic analysis was carried out to investigate the basis for differential targeting by these two proteins, and Rbf2-specific promoters were found to have distinct sequence motifs, suggesting unique targeting mechanisms. (sdbonline.org)
  • Indeed, in the case of the ArsR-SmtB family, multiple distinct metal-sensing motifs (and one non-metal-sensing motif) have been identified which correlate with the detection of different metals. (rsc.org)
  • Defining the overlapping versus distinct pocket protein functions is therefore an important step to understanding the unique role of Rb. (biologists.org)
  • Ablation of total Rb family function resulted in opposing effects in specification along distinct cell lineages, providing evidence that pocket proteins inhibit neuroendocrine cell fate while being required for differentiation in other cell types. (biologists.org)
  • These findings identify a novel role for pocket proteins in cell fate determination, and establish a unique cell lineage-specific function for Rb that explains, at least in part, why Rb and p16 are inactivated in phenotypically distinct carcinomas. (biologists.org)
  • This thesis reports the first structure of a FusB-type protein, and begins to define the interaction between these proteins and EF-G. The 3D structure of FusC reveals a monomer composed of two distinct domains. (bl.uk)
  • In mammals, there are four cavin family members that associate through homo- and hetero-oligomerisation to form distinct subcomplexes on caveolae, which can be released into the cell in response to stimuli. (biologists.org)
  • Caveolae generally display an uneven cellular distribution, and caveola-associated proteins have distinct tissue-specific expression profiles suggestive of highly specialised functions. (biologists.org)
  • In this study the scientists have addressed the distinct conformations of the AdiC transporter, a model protein for the study of human LAT and CAT and present in the bacteria Escherichia coli. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Protein domains are compact regions of a protein's structure that often convey some distinct function. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • aTyr Pharma's proprietary product generating engine consists of these resect ed prote ins ( resectins ) of human aminoacyl tRNA synthetases with cell signaling activities distinct from the protein synthesis activities. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These dominant mutations do not cause a loss in the protein synthesis activity, indicating that the neuropathy arises from distinct activities of this tRNA synthetase. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Instead, FusB-type proteins interact with the portion of EF-G known to make contact with the inside of the ribosome. (bl.uk)
  • TANC1 proteins are localized at excitatory synapses, directly interact with PSD-95, and form a complex with diverse excitatory postsynaptic proteins including PSD-95, GKAP, AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, and the α subunit of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our goal is to examine how multiple HP1 proteins interact, because we hypothesize that the different family members cooperate to achieve their diverse functions. (uab.edu)
  • Importantly, mice deficient in both pRb and p53, but not those deficient in either protein alone, were highly susceptible to subthreshold carcinogen exposure and developed invasive urothelial carcinomas that strongly resembled the human counterparts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When they gve CAR-Ts that lack all three Nr4a proteins to mice, their tumors began to shrink and they lived longer. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The ability of E7 to inactivate the pRb family correlates with its ability to induce head and neck cancers in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated mice that were deficient in multiple pocket proteins, including mice that lacked pRb, p107, and p130. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most organisms have more than one HP1 protein - humans and mice, for example, have three. (uab.edu)
  • The RING finger is a zinc-binding protein domain that was initially characterized as a protein interaction domain ( Borden, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Future studies on the interaction between COPT transporters and other components of the Cu homeostasis network will improve our knowledge of plant Cu acquisition, distribution, regulation, and utilization by Cu-proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) is a member of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family of proteins that are involved in protein-protein interaction, signal transduction, and cell adhesion and development. (clontech.com)
  • However, the interaction of these proteins with EF-G is poorly characterised, their structure has not been elucidated, and it is unknown how protection from FA is mediated. (bl.uk)
  • This region of FusB-type proteins was found to mediate a high-affinity interaction with the C-terminal domains of EF-G in vitro, yielding a complex with a 1: 1 stoichiometry. (bl.uk)
  • The protein-protein interaction occurs away from the FA binding site of EF-G, suggesting that FusB-type proteins do not mediate FA-resistance through direct steric hindrance of the interaction between FA and its target. (bl.uk)
  • The first study that found a direct interaction between membranes and Amph1 revealed that the N-terminal part of the protein was necessary and sufficient to deform lipid droplets into narrow tubules in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most divergent are the small and basic integral proteins in which the first of the two highly conserved Asn-Pro-Ala motifs of the pore is not conserved, but is represented by alanine-proline-threonine or alanine-proline-serine. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2011) Extending CATH: increasing coverage of the protein structure universe and linking structure with function. (els.net)
  • In humans, this protein has a Uniprot ID of P16104 and has an annotated function: 'Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. (biocompare.com)
  • In the case of the latter, low molecular weight HMG proteins, there is considerable literature on their possible function, although firm conclusions are not yet available (see chapter by Goodwin et al. (springer.com)
  • Mutant ZNRF proteins with a disrupted RING finger, a domain necessary for their E3 function, can each inhibit Ca 2+ -dependent exocytosis in PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, there is increasing evidence that the addition of a single ubiquitin molecule, mono-ubiquitination, is an important post-translational mechanism of modifying protein function ( Hicke, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This outlook paper reviews the contribution of our research group to the characterization of the function played by the Arabidopsis thaliana COPT1-6 family of proteins in plant Cu homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • K.R. Oliver, "CGRP Receptor Family and Accessory Protein Localization: Implications for Predicted Function," TheScientificWorldJOURNAL , vol. 1, pp. 10-10, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, an alternative protein for the respective function should be sought among the functionally unassigned gene products ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • it may indicate large groups of proteins with the lowest possible level of detectable sequence similarity, or very narrow groups of proteins with almost identical sequence, function, and three-dimensional structure, or any kind of group in-between. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAM83 proteins participate in various cellular processes and are characterized by an N-terminal "domain of unknown function" called DUF1669. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, protein folding is inefficient and ribosome function is hampered. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of the secondary structures of DNA and RNA, protein folding is inefficient, and ribosomes need to be adapted to cold before they can function properly ( Phadtare, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • however, the function of this protein is still unclear. (iucr.org)
  • The lung provides a manipulatable model system in which to explore Rb family function in vivo, both in cell cycle control and in cellular differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that pocket protein function is important for lung development. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, deletion of the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 nullifies anti-apoptotic function and homodimerization, but does not impair binding to the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, the data suggest the possibility that both Bcl-2/Bcl-2 homodimerization and Bcl-2/Bax heterodimerization are necessary but insufficient for the anti-apoptotic function of the Bcl-2 protein. (springer.com)
  • This suggests that all Meis family members have at least one shared function and that this function must be carried out by a conserved domain. (biologists.org)
  • consistent with a role for Pbx proteins in regulating Hox function in the vertebrate hindbrain. (biologists.org)
  • Protein kinase function can be counteracted by the action of phosphoprotein phosphatases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thus, Vav proteins may function to transduce signals from diverse receptors to Rho GTPases. (asm.org)
  • The MHC class I protein family is large and diverse, and most members require association with the β 2 -microglobulin (B2M) chain for their cell-surface expression and function. (jimmunol.org)
  • The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells. (iucr.org)
  • Here, we reviewed the mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein family, namely gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in STAT1 and STAT3 as well as STAT5b deficiency, that show strong association to T1D susceptibility. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Protein domains are the common currency of protein structure and function. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Hence, one way to study evolution of protein function and structure is by looking at the evolution of protein domain composition. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Although, in general, the function of a protein domain is conserved over time, it may be altered or completely changed. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Nonetheless, even few subtle changes, such as point mutations, can have dramatic effects on a function of a protein domain and consequently affect the overall protein function. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The present review provides a brief overview of the structure and function of BET family proteins and then examines the connections between NFκB and BRD4 signaling, using the inflammatory response and cancer cell signaling as study models. (mdpi.com)
  • Plasma glucose and serum insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), plasma lipid concentrations, and indexes of liver function, as well as anthropometric parameters, were measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dawson NL, Lewis TE, Das S, Lees JG, Lee D, Ashford P, Orengo CA, Sillitoe I (2017) CATH: an expanded resource to predict protein function through structure and sequence. (muni.cz)
  • The most active are highly specific for water and may transport up to a billion water molecules per second per 28-kD protein subunit, depending on the osmotic gradient imposed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Many bacteria produce small cold shock proteins (Csp) as a response to rapid temperature downshift (cold shock). (frontiersin.org)
  • Iglewski BH, Kabat D (1975) NAD-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin. (springer.com)
  • AinS and a new family of autoinducer synthesis proteins. (asm.org)
  • ainS is predicted to encode a 45,580-Da protein which exhibits no similarity to LuxI or to any of the LuxI homologs responsible for the synthesis of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones in a variety of other bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In humans, transporters like LAT and CAT are particularly relevant as they mediate amino acid transport and are crucial in intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption, protein synthesis, the maintenance of antioxidants, and infection produced by the virus associated with Kaposi sarcoma. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • The aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are universal and essential components of protein synthesis machinery found in all organisms, but human synthetases have naturally occurring resected variants with potent cell signaling activities that are vital to normal functioning of humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • While tRNA synthetases play an essential role in protein synthesis in all forms of life, these dominant mutations in CMT patients did not seem to manifest the disease through disruption of those protein synthesis activities. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The antibodies were raised in rabbit using synthetic peptides, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human or rat LRG1 protein. (clontech.com)
  • MHC class II proteins are essential because they present processed peptides on APCs that are required to stimulate Ag-specific CD4 + T cells that drive B cells to mature and secrete IgG Abs as well as supporting CD4 + regulatory T cells (T regs ) that have suppressor functions (reviewed in Ref. 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The highly polymorphic, classical MHC class Ia proteins present a vast array of processed peptides and are critical for the development of CD8 + T cells and their TCR repertoire, which is required for discrimination between self and nonself. (jimmunol.org)
  • The development of the technologies for stable isotope labeling of proteins/peptides and their application in conjunction with high throughput LC-MS/MS methodology have provided the means to rapidly screen for changes in protein expression ( 40 - 43 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho family GTPases which activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations. (asm.org)
  • To address the involvement of regulatory pathways controlled by members of the MHC class I protein family in autoimmunity, we focused our studies on the BXSB. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review focuses on the role of the WASP/WAVE family in breast cancer cell invasion and migration and how this relates to the molecular mechanisms of WASP/WAVE activity, their exact contributions to the stages of cancer progression, and how this can lead to the development of anticancer drugs that target the WASP/WAVE family and related pathways. (dovepress.com)
  • Since the last update article 2 years ago, we have generated 1182 new families and maintained sequence coverage of the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) at nearly 80%, despite a 50% increase in the size of the underlying sequence database. (nih.gov)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Golgins, long coiled-coil proteins that localize to particular Golgi subdomains via their C termini, are candidate regulators of vesicle sorting. (rupress.org)
  • We suggest an integrated model for a tentacular Golgi in which coiled-coil proteins surround the Golgi to capture and retain Rab-containing membranes, excluding other structures such as ribosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Another group of proteins proposed to contribute to Golgi structure is a set of long coiled-coil proteins often referred to as golgins. (rupress.org)
  • To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. (iucr.org)
  • These studies revealed that BAR domains are basically composed of three anti-parallel coiled-coil helices which allow BAR family proteins to homodimerize. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)