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  • years
  • A group of 39 mothers who had a physically abused child at an average of 6 years previously and a group of 14 mothers who had a child with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) 13 years ago were reviewed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structural
  • Active citizenship Group decision-making Evidence-based policy Resource allocation Collaborative decision-making software Online participation Legitimacy (political) Global governance failure Global issue Impact assessment Systems theory Systemic problem Structural fix Collective problem solving Privatization Market failure Adaptation Criticism of democracy Criticism of capitalism Market fundamentalism Political finance Newman, Joshua (2017). (wikipedia.org)
  • Grout curtain List of hydroelectric power station failures Structural integrity and failure Osnos, Evan. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Economists, especially microeconomists, are often concerned with the causes of market failure and possible means of correction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implant failure can have any number of causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of dam failure include: Sub-standard construction materials/techniques (Gleno Dam) Spillway design error (South Fork Dam, near failure of Glen Canyon Dam) Geological instability caused by changes to water levels during filling or poor surveying (Malpasset Dam). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of a cascade failure is usually the overloading of a single, crucial router or node, which causes the node to go down, even briefly. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • In people with chronic stable mild heart failure, treatment commonly consists of lifestyle modifications such as stopping smoking, physical exercise, and dietary changes, as well as medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly reported device failures are due to impacts, loss of hermeticity, and electrode lead malfunctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • attempts
  • However, government policy interventions, such as taxes, subsidies, bailouts, wage and price controls, and regulations (including poorly implemented attempts to correct market failure), may also lead to an inefficient allocation of resources, sometimes called government failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the tension between, on the one hand, the undeniable costs to society caused by market failure, and on the other hand, the potential that attempts to mitigate these costs could lead to even greater costs from "government failure", there is sometimes a choice between imperfect outcomes, i.e. imperfect market outcomes with or without government interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar ratio used in the transport industries, especially in railways and trucking is "mean distance between failures", a variation which attempts to correlate actual loaded distances to similar reliability needs and practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • existence
  • Contract failure is one explanation for the existence of non-profit organizations, although even non-profits can fall victim to contract failure in the right situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public goods are both non-rival and non-excludable (i.e., public goods are not only non-excludable) thus existence of a market failure is often the reason that self-regulatory organizations, governments or supra-national institutions intervene in a particular market. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuous
  • There is tentative evidence that in those with respiratory failure identified before arrival in hospital, continuous positive airway pressure can be useful when started before conveying to hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems
  • Market failures are often associated with time-inconsistent preferences, information asymmetries, non-competitive markets, principal-agent problems, or externalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the primary problems with preventing electrical grid failures is that the speed of the control signal is no faster than the speed of the propagating power overload, i.e. since both the control signal and the electrical power are moving at the same speed, it is not possible to isolate the outage by sending a warning ahead to isolate the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • Play media Heart failure is a physiological state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors
  • Failure rates are important factors in the insurance, finance, commerce and regulatory industries and fundamental to the design of safe systems in a wide variety of applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most technical applications pieces are rarely allowed to reach their ultimate failure or breakage point, instead for safety factors they are removed at the first signs of significant wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The definition of respiratory failure in clinical trials usually includes increased respiratory rate, abnormal blood gases (hypoxemia, hypercapnia, or both), and evidence of increased work of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Failure of a dental implant is often related to the failure of the implant to osseointegrate correctly with the bone, or vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the mean time between failures (MTBF, 1/λ) is often reported instead of the failure rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is valid and useful if the failure rate may be assumed constant - often used for complex units / systems, electronics - and is a general agreement in some reliability standards (Military and Aerospace). (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary
  • In breastfeeding, lactation failure may refer to: Primary lactation failure, a cause of low milk supply in breastfeeding mothers Cessation of breastfeeding before the mother had planned to stop, usually as a result of breastfeeding difficulties Low milk supply in general Lawrence, Ruth A. (1986). (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are required in cases of severe respiratory failure (PaO2 less than 50 mmHg). (wikipedia.org)
  • reliability
  • In order to improve and standardize failure reporting practices to the public, the AAMI is developing an American standard for cochlear implants in collaboration with the FDA, major cochlear implant manufacturers, the CALCE center for reliability, doctors, and clinicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Cascade failures are a relatively recent development, with the massive increase in traffic and the high interconnectivity between systems and networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • band
  • Failure Anthem is an American hard rock band from Greensboro, North Carolina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Destination Failure is the third album by the Chicago-based pop punk band the Smoking Popes, released August 26, 1997 by Capitol Records. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure is an American alternative rock band from Los Angeles that was active from 1990 to 1997 and from 2014 onwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmit Failure is the second album by band Four Hundred Years. (wikipedia.org)
  • rarely
  • Respiratory stimulants such as doxapram are rarely used, and if the respiratory failure resulted from an overdose of sedative drugs such as opioids or benzodiazepines, then the appropriate antidote (naloxone or flumazenil, respectively) will be given. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tribute
  • Several artists covered songs from Destination Failure for the 2003 Smoking Popes Tribute album: Bad Astronaut covered "Megan", Saturday Supercade performed "Paul", Junction 18 contributed a rendition of "End of Your Time", and The Ataris covered "Pretty Pathetic" (The Ataris version had previously been released on their EP All You Can Ever Learn Is What You Already Know). (wikipedia.org)
  • producer
  • Oregon Failure is entirely produced by Seattle producer Maulskull, and it features guest appearances from Ceschi, Xperience, Tony Ozier, Onry Ozzborn, Nyqwil of Oldominion and Pigeon John. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, Failure signed with Slash Records (an LA-based independent label whose releases were manufactured and distributed by Warner Bros. in the United States), and went to Minnesota to record their debut album with notorious producer Steve Albini at Pachyderm Studio that summer. (wikipedia.org)
  • market failure
  • Contract failure is related to, but distinct from, market failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • But either way, if a market failure exists the outcome is not Pareto efficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ecological market failure exists when human activity in a market economy is exhausting critical non-renewable resources, disrupting fragile ecosystems services, or overloading biospheric waste absorption capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different economists have different views about what events are the sources of market failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traffic congestion is an example of market failure that incorporates both non-excludability and externality. (wikipedia.org)
  • seen
  • Cascading failure is a common effect seen in high voltage systems, where a single point of failure (SPF) on a fully loaded or slightly overloaded system results in a sudden spike across all nodes of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • In the spring of 1996, Warner did exactly that, agreeing to keep the Slash imprint one last time for Failure, and Fantastic Planet was released that August. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guitarist Troy Van Leeuwen, a friend and former bandmate of Scott's, joined Failure around the time of the album's release. (wikipedia.org)
  • The failure rate can be defined as the following: The total number of failures within an item population, divided by the total time expended by that population, during a particular measurement interval under stated conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • where T {\displaystyle {T}} is the failure time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This surge current can induce the already overloaded nodes into failure, setting off more overloads and thereby taking down the entire system in a very short time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although undesired, this can help speed up the recovery from this failure as connections will time out, and other nodes will give up trying to establish connections to the section(s) that have become cut off, decreasing load on the involved nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • For example, an automobile's failure rate in its fifth year of service may be many times greater than its failure rate during its first year of service. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MTBF is an important system parameter in systems where failure rate needs to be managed, in particular for safety systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erroneous expression of the failure rate in % could result in incorrect perception of the measure, especially if it would be measured from repairable systems and multiple systems with non-constant failure rates or different operation times. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Failure chose to cover the 1990 hit "Enjoy the Silence", a worldwide smash and Depeche Mode's best-selling and most well-known single. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart failure has been known since ancient times with the Ebers papyrus commenting on it around 1550 BCE. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Respiratory failure is classified as either Type I or Type II, based on whether there is a high carbon dioxide level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failures related to exposure to high voltage electricity or high intensity microwaves Power-generating equipment, arc welding equipment and powerful magnets (as in medical devices, heavy equipment or motors) can inhibit pulse generators. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-output heart failure can occur when there is an increased cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • A cascading failure is a process in a system of interconnected parts in which the failure of one or few parts can trigger the failure of other parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This failure process cascades through the elements of the system like a ripple on a pond and continues until substantially all of the elements in the system are compromised and/or the system becomes functionally disconnected from the source of its load. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Heart failure is divided into two types based on ejection fraction, which is the proportion of blood pumped out of the heart during a single contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two types are: 1) Heart failure due to reduced ejection fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In engineering there are multiple types of failure based upon the application of the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these types of failure occur based on the material's ductility. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • In ultimate failure this will result in one or more breaks in the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this deformation or weakening of the material is not the technical definition of ultimate failure, the piece has failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the material has reached its ultimate tensile strength it will elongate more easily until it reaches ultimate failure and breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • Heart failure is not the same as myocardial infarction (in which part of the heart muscle dies) or cardiac arrest (in which blood flow stops altogether). (wikipedia.org)
  • Application
  • A list of dam failures and incidents in the United States Dam Safety.org Chronology of major tailings dam failures from 1960 WISE Uranium Project Chanson, H. (2009) Application of the Method of Characteristics to the Dam Break Wave Problem Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 41-49 doi:10.3826/jhr.2009.2865 (ISSN 0022-1686). (wikipedia.org)
  • history
  • In 1975 the failure of the Banqiao Reservoir Dam and other dams in Henan Province, China caused more casualties than any other dam failure in history. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • Failure played both an early afternoon set on the main stage and a longer headlining set in the evening on the side stage for the remainder of the tour. (wikipedia.org)
  • cover
  • Destination Failure also includes a cover version of "Pure Imagination", a song from the musical film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory. (wikipedia.org)