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  • stem cells
  • This notion has been shattered by the demonstration that many types of organoids can be generated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (biologists.org)
  • Since the 2006 discovery by Shinya Yamanaka and Kazutoshi Takahashi at Kyoto University, Japan, that just four transcription factors could reprogram mouse fibroblasts to a pluripotent state, induced pluripotent stem cells have created excitement among researchers who see them as more available, easier to make, and less ethically conflicted than embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (alzforum.org)
  • Research suggests that both brain structures derive from embryonic stem cells at the base of the developing forebrain and that, despite the major differences between species, their respective constitutions and specifications derive from similar genetic programmes. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • CILIA
  • however, the mechanism through which embryonic cilia produce their movement and how the leftward flow confers laterality are still requiring investigation. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • The ciliary motility in the embryonic node involves complex dynein activations and the handed information is transmitted to the cells by the flow produced by cilia, either mechanically and/or by advection of a chemical species. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • testosterone
  • 25 of DHT in circulation %25 of estradiol (E2) in circulation Testosterone : a circulating precursor of DHT and E2 DHT (5-reductase) in liver, kidney, muscle, prostate, external genitalia and genital skin E2 (aromatase enzyme complex) in muscle, liver, kidney, brain, adipose tissue. (scribd.com)
  • sperm
  • the eukaryotic flagellum, which is related to the cilium in structure, is also used for swimming, as in the green alga Chlamydomonas or in the sperm of many species. (genetics.org)
  • molecule
  • Future work regarding the integrative model is discussed, that will provide more accurate quantitative information on the flow rate, ciliary motion, and molecule/ particle transport in the embryonic node and support the plausibility of hypotheses regarding left-right information transmission. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • The external domain of a cadherin molecule - the part that is on the outside of a cell - is made up of many repeats of the same protein chain. (news-medical.net)
  • tail
  • For example, stage 34 is crucial for the trait "tail width" but is internodal for all other embryonic traits. (deepdyve.com)
  • Later, Ledley goes on to say that 'The modern understanding of teratology [the study of anomalous malformations] and tail formation finds nothing unhuman or reversionary about the tail-like structure. (icr.org)
  • The occurrence of the caudal appendage, as well as the presence of a well-formed embryonic tail in a child, are testimony to the preservation of the structural elements necessary for tail formation in the human genome. (icr.org)
  • occur
  • This seems to occur independently of external forces and attests to the self-organizing properties of retinal progenitor cells. (biologists.org)
  • cuticle
  • The most prominant distinguising feature of Ecdysozoans is their tough external covering called the cuticle. (oercommons.org)
  • The cuticle provides a tough, but flexible exoskeleton tht protects these animals from water loss, predators and other aspects of the external environment. (oercommons.org)
  • The cuticle of Nematodes is rich in collagen and a carbohydrate-protein polymer called chitin, and forms an external "skeleton" outside the epidermis. (oercommons.org)
  • Most of the ciliated nerve endings are either exposed directly to the external environment or embedded in the animal's external cuticle and are strongly implicated, by two lines of evidence, in the reception of chemosensory and mechanosensory stimuli. (genetics.org)
  • appendage
  • First of all, the caudal appendage does not contain even rudimentary vertebral structures. (icr.org)
  • It is possible that this structure is merely a dermal appendage coincidentally located in the caudal region. (icr.org)
  • There were no bony or cartilaginous elements in the appendage and it was found to have no connection to vertebral structures. (icr.org)
  • complex
  • We demonstrate the additive manufacturing of complex three-dimensional (3D) biological structures using soft protein and polysaccharide hydrogels that are challenging or impossible to create using traditional fabrication approaches. (sciencemag.org)
  • cell
  • It's really changed the embryonic stem cell field," Rao said. (alzforum.org)
  • Chemotaxis is a pivotal response of many cell types to external spatial cues. (rupress.org)
  • These connections help define how a cell will be integrated into a structure, like a layer of skin or an organ. (news-medical.net)
  • During mitosis (ordinary cell proliferation by division), the centromeres attach to a bundle of microtubules known as the mitotic spindle, which is formed by centrioles (cylindrical cell structures). (britannica.com)
  • found
  • Nonetheless, researchers led by Rudolf Jaenisch at MIT found that residual expression of reprogramming genes in iPS cells may interfere with fully resetting the cells to an embryonic pluripotent state. (alzforum.org)