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  • assess
  • Aiming to assess the risk of face skin exposure to UV irradiance from different rotation angles, a rotating model was used to monitor the exposure of the skin on the face to UV irradiance, with skin damage action spectra used to determine the biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBE skin ) and UVBE skin radiant exposure (HBE skin ) causing skin damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Exponent has significant experience in this area, and has helped clients assess exposures from various consumer products using techniques such as exposure simulation, where industrial hygiene (exposure) data are collected during testing of re-formulated, and in some cases existing but historical, products. (exponent.com)
  • Abstract Objectives The aim of this paper was to assess the diarrhea risks caused by various pathogens among those exposed to biogas wastewater through different activities. (repec.org)
  • Pollutants
  • For air pollutants, our knowledge and experience can characterize the processes by which the pollutants are formed and the magnitude and rate of emissions from the sources, followed by using the appropriate modeling tools and meteorological and geographical data to quantify the potential magnitude of exposure. (exponent.com)
  • We have evaluated pollutants released into fresh or marine waters, using our broad understanding of the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes involved, the geochemical variables of chemical transport and transformation, and the biological and ecological factors involved in direct-contact exposure or indirect exposure through the food chain. (exponent.com)
  • Our scientists and engineers have also evaluated pollutants in soil, whether deposited directly by unintentional spills or indirectly through atmospheric deposition or floods, with a full understanding of the complex variables involved in exposure. (exponent.com)
  • fate
  • This volume covers the extrapolation techniques, including models that address the environmental fate, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and ecological effects, for performing accurate aquatic environmental risk assessments of pesticides. (foyles.co.uk)
  • biological
  • As a result, there is an increasing need to better understand the complex mechanisms that influence risk of chemical and non-chemical stressors, beginning at their source and ending at a biological endpoint relevant to human or ecosystem health risk assessment. (epa.gov)
  • Information is presented in a narrative description that discusses factors such as the methodological strengths and weaknesses of individual studies (as well as the overall database), the length of time over which the studies were conducted, routes of exposure, and possible biological modes of action. (epa.gov)
  • compounds
  • The risk assessments for four compounds are summarized as examples. (sae.org)
  • The diet of children aged 2 to 6 years in the Netherlands is safe regarding the exposure to fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, patulin (toxic compounds produced by fungi), nitrate and organophosphorus pesticides. (rivm.nl)
  • The health risk of children was subsequently assessed with the help of the available literature regarding the toxicology of these compounds. (rivm.nl)
  • data
  • As more data are collected within the AEP framework, users will benefit from better-organized and integrated exposure information regardless of the use for those data. (epa.gov)
  • In addition, future research can be tailored to address known data gaps and modeling needs highlighted by the comprehensive integration of exposure information. (epa.gov)
  • By combining risk factors and satellite imagery, the service determines wildfire perimeters from a variety of sources mapped against high-resolution fuels data. (aer.com)
  • Bal IE, Bommer J, Stafford P, Crowley H, Pinho R (2010) The influence of geographical resolution of urban exposure data in an earthquake loss model for Istanbul. (springer.com)
  • Deichmann U, Ehrlich D, Small C, Zeug G (2011) Using high resolution satellite data for the identification of urban natural disaster risk. (springer.com)
  • Data on different endpoints are arrayed and discussed, and the effects (and their attendant dose/exposure levels) described. (epa.gov)
  • The RfC or RfD are then derived by consistent application of uncertainty factors (UFs) to account for recognized uncertainties in the extrapolation from the experimental data and exposure conditions . (epa.gov)
  • This document summarizes exposure data collected by OSHA between mid-September and mid-December 2005, in the region impacted by hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. (osha.gov)
  • The document provides a summary of the available and up-to-date statistical data on various factors assessing children exposures. (epa.gov)
  • We utilize prospective exposure assessment techniques such as mathematical modeling or statistical analyses of probabilities of certain outcomes of interest, sometimes utilizing limited data. (exponent.com)
  • worker
  • Each employer is also responsible for preserving, maintaining, and providing workers with access to worker exposure and medical records in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020 . (osha.gov)
  • Although all the listed operations occurred regularly during this period, debris reduction, recycling, and disposal were the most prominent tasks and, therefore, were the activities where OSHA most frequently evaluated worker exposures. (osha.gov)
  • duration
  • Sensitivity analysis of THMs revealed that chloroform is the predominant parameter followed by body weight and exposure duration influencing cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • Characterizing and estimating the magnitude, frequency, and duration of potential exposures is an essential component for evaluating health risks posed by a particular chemical or physical agent. (exponent.com)
  • statistical
  • DCEG investigators often pool together cohorts in order to search for information on rare exposures or cancers, or to strengthen the statistical power for a complicated analysis. (cancer.gov)
  • 2002
  • James, J. and Ramanathan, R., "Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: Derivation by Toxicological Risk Assessment Methods," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2536, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-2536 . (sae.org)
  • hazards
  • Although, homes of any age or value can contain serious hazards, older homes that are poorly maintained, or improperly renovated, usually present the greatest risks. (yorkcity.org)
  • As part of this effort, employers should evaluate each task and operation, identify the hazards associated with it, and establish the exposure controls necessary to adequately protect workers. (osha.gov)
  • quantify
  • It identifies building footprint map, building location map and built-up area map as information products that can be used to quantify physical exposure, one of the variables required in disaster risk assessments. (springer.com)
  • scientists
  • The wildfire exposure and risk management services provided by Verisk Climate are typically delivered in the LOCATION FireLine TM service powered by Verisk Climate technology that was originally developed by AER scientists. (aer.com)
  • ecological effects
  • This document presents the findings of EPA's survey and provisional assessment of studies relevant to assessing the health and ecological effects of O 3 that were published too recently to be included in the 2006 Air Quality Criteria Document for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. (epa.gov)
  • The EPA has conducted a provisional assessment of studies investigating the health and ecological effects of O 3 published in recent years that were not included in the O 3 AQCD. (epa.gov)
  • Guidelines
  • NASA Johnson Space Center in cooperation with the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council (NRCCOT) has developed a science-based approach, taking into consideration space flight induced factors, to derive Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEG) for 1, 10, 100, 1000 days of consumption. (sae.org)
  • 8 February 2018 Added new guidance on 'Rabies: administration of vaccine and immunoglobulin' to 'Rabies post-exposure treatment guidelines' section. (www.gov.uk)
  • The lifetime cancer risks of THMs from supply water were 100 times higher than prescribed USEPA guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • Sensitivity
  • PM2.5 pollution has become of increasing public concern because of its relative importance and sensitivity to population health risks. (mdpi.com)
  • concentration
  • The higher cancer risk found for Indian context than those reported for other countries like USA, UK, Japan, Australia, is mainly due to the higher concentration level of THMs, water intake and average body weight. (nih.gov)
  • We simulated and predicted the temporal and spatial changes of PM2.5 concentration and population exposure risks, by coupling optimization algorithms of the Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) model and a geographical information system (GIS) in Xi'an, China, for 2013, 2020, and 2025. (mdpi.com)
  • Compared to 2013, temporal and spatial variation of PM2.5 concentration and risk of population exposure to pollution decreased in 2020 and 2025. (mdpi.com)
  • Chapter
  • For pre-exposure vaccination advice, see Immunisation against infectious disease: the green book, chapter 27 on rabies . (www.gov.uk)
  • Excerpts of each chapter of the Handbook and summaries of key recommendations for each of the exposure factors are provided (see downloads). (epa.gov)
  • crucial
  • Evaluating exposure-response relationships is a crucial component in determining cancer causation. (cancer.gov)
  • Accurate predictions of PM2.5 pollution and population exposure risks are crucial to developing effective air pollution control strategies. (mdpi.com)
  • results indicate
  • These results indicate unacceptable risks at the current OSHA PEL for manganese (5.0mg/m(3), 15min) and likely at the Cal OSHA PEL as well. (cdc.gov)
  • potential
  • The paper also reviews urban land use maps and urban classes in land cover maps as potential source for deriving exposure information. (springer.com)
  • An emerging field of study, metabolomics has the potential to improve exposure measures and delineate mechanistic links between exposures and cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • These forward-looking assessments are of great value to clients in getting necessary permits, mitigating potential future exposures, and limiting future liabilities. (exponent.com)
  • Sheehan P, Kalmes R, Turnham P, Anderson E. Simulation study of potential historical user asbestos fiber exposure from cosmetic body talc use. (exponent.com)
  • various
  • While there are certain similarities between AEPs and existing exposure science resources, the unique aspects that AEPs provide in support of these various resources stand as a testament to the framework's significant advancement of 21st century exposure science. (epa.gov)
  • lifetime
  • Because these exposures occurred over a 1-2-year period, generalization to lifetime excess risk requires further consideration of the form of the exposure response and whether short-term responses can be generalized to equivalent 45-year period. (cdc.gov)
  • Average lifetime cancer risk analysis indicated that females are more prone to cancer risk than males. (nih.gov)