• 2009 ). For example, following the Mount St Helens eruption in 1980, "zero visibility" caused traffic to come to a standstill in several places including on Interstate 90 near Ellensburg in Washington, with visibility so poor that the authorities used flares to guide motorists to nearby schools and churches (Warrick 1981 , p.19). (springer.com)
  • Lava emerged from the vent in the crater of Mount St. Helens (top image) hours after a series of explosive eruptions generated eruption columns and pyroclastic flows October 16-18, 1980. (usgs.gov)
  • We describe and constrain the physics of this process including necessary magnitudes of basaltic intrusion, mixing and mobilization of coal and basalt, ascent to the surface, explosive combustion, and the atmospheric rise necessary for global distribution. (pnas.org)
  • By accounting for systematic under-recording in the volcanic record, we also calculate the global recurrence rates for large-magnitude eruptions during the Holocene, which are similar to previous estimates. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • AUV maps allow us for the first time, to comprehensively map the thickness and extent of lava flows from a deep-ocean submarine eruption in high resolution. (mbari.org)
  • These eruptions also produce hot, fluid lava flows that may extend several kilometers down-slope from the vents . (usgs.gov)
  • In a press briefing on Tuesday, PHIVOLCS OIC Renato Solidum advised the public to be aware of the developments in Taal's activities as major explosive eruption remains a possibility. (untvweb.com)
  • Volcanic haze from Kilauea, where fallout from a massive eruption keeps threatening residents, has stretched across the Pacific and threatens residents of the Mariana Islands. (ktla.com)
  • The most explosive volcanic event of the Quaternary was the eruption of Mt. Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 y ago, which produced voluminous ash deposits found across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula, and South China Sea. (pnas.org)
  • Alternatively, magma may have slowly drained from the reservoir during the prolonged ʻAilāʻau eruption, causing episodic collapses before the final, largest downdrop took place. (usgs.gov)
  • A major climatic downturn observed within the Greenland ice cores has been attributed to the cooling effects of the ash and aerosols ejected during the eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT). (pnas.org)
  • These plumes are separate from the lava eruptions happening roughly 25 miles (40 kilometers) away from summit, where about 20 lava fissures have destroyed more than two dozen homes and forced the evacuation of about 2,000 residents. (phys.org)
  • Explosive eruptions can send rocks, dust, gas and pyroclastic material up to 20 km into the atmosphere at a rate of up to 100,000 tonnes per second,[citation needed] traveling at several hundred meters per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • These catastrophic events have resulted in eruption columns of over 25km high and expelled widespread pyroclastic material over 130km. (planettechnews.com)
  • The mere fact that we are recording a lot of earthquakes and the fissures are now observed, meaning the entire area of Taal is being pushed by the magma intrusion, that would now be a possible source, if this would reached the surface, for a possible eruption and hopefully it's not explosive but based on past events, it becomes explosive," he concluded. (untvweb.com)
  • The area north of Nantes River through to Woodlands could be affected by such more powerful eruptions, although their probability is believed to be low. (mtu.edu)
  • Our study, however, finds stratigraphic and 14 C evidence that the tephra instead results from numerous eruptions throughout a 300-year period between about 1500 and 1800. (usgs.gov)
  • Two prolonged periods of episodic explosive eruptions are known at Kīlauea, the Keanakākoʻi and the Uwēkahuna Tephra (Fiske et al. (usgs.gov)
  • The explosive activity blasts apart the magma into small fragments called tephra ( pumice and volcanic ash ), which may rise to more than 10 km (30,000 feet) above the vent . (usgs.gov)
  • Modest accumulations of tephra pose no immediate threat to life or property (especially in areas where most structures are built to withstand substantial snow loads), but even a thin dusting of fine ash can seriously disrupt social and economic activities for weeks or months after an eruption. (usgs.gov)
  • The eruption produced about 150 km³ of tephra, giving it a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7 and making it one of the most explosive in the last 10,000 years, ranking alongside Santorini, Changbaishan, Crater Lake, Kurile Lake and Tambora. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • These include the location and number of vents , the size and style of the eruption, and the direction of the prevailing winds during the eruption. (usgs.gov)
  • The scientists at HVO has been very on point for this ongoing, slow-boil eruption. (startribune.com)
  • It is not feasible to place specific time constraints on the active period and it could take up to a year after the cessation of manifest activity for scientists to feel assured that the eruption had finished. (mtu.edu)
  • Volcanic cones are of different types, depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during the eruption. (prezi.com)
  • Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Volcanic gas emissions remain very high from the fissure eruptions," the USGS said. (ktla.com)
  • Volcanic records can be used to estimate the recurrence rate of large-magnitude eruptions (magnitude ≥4), but recording biases that impact data completeness complicate analysis. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • To overcome this bias we group eruptions into different magnitude classes (e.g., magnitude 4.0-4.9 = M4), rather than try to fit a parametric distribution to the data. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The scale of the eruptions we describe has the potential to cause devastation on the heavily populated island of Tenerife and major economic repercussions for the wider European community. (planettechnews.com)
  • Interpretation of 97 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14 C ages and 4 previous conventional ages suggests that explosive eruptions began in 1470-1510 CE, and that explosive activity continued episodically until the early 1800s, probably with two periods of quiescence lasting several decades. (usgs.gov)
  • Additional explosive events that could produce minor amounts of ashfall downwind are possible at any time. (ktla.com)
  • Here, we use historical eruption data to estimate a plausible range of ash-settling rates and ash particle characteristics for Auckland city, New Zealand. (springer.com)
  • The most likely outcome of the present crisis is that the eruption will progress at levels of activity comparable to those observed so far. (mtu.edu)
  • The scale of the eruption combined with the small size of the island and the desire to maintain a population presents unprecedented challenges for volcanological monitoring and risk assessment. (mtu.edu)
  • If a period of unrest does lead to an eruption in the Long Valley area, its potential effects will depend critically on several factors. (usgs.gov)
  • The positions of the sulfate peaks in both northern and southern hemisphere ice cores at the start of the ∼1,000 y stadial between Dansgaard-Oeschger events 19 and 20 has been widely used within climate models ( 9 , 14 ) and archaeological debate ( 12 , 13 , 19 ) to infer that the Toba eruption triggered devastating global cooling. (pnas.org)