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  • mice
  • To elucidate the contribution of faulty adult neurogenesis to DG synaptic plasticity deficits and memory impairment in DS we have treated adult Ts65Dn mice with lithium, a widely used mood stabilizer that also promotes neurogenesis. (epfl.ch)
  • Fetal
  • Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells' (1997), by Ian Wilmut et al. (asu.edu)
  • Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue' (2004), by Kiarash Khosrotehrani et al. (asu.edu)
  • Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, investigated the fetal cells that remained in the maternal blood stream after pregnancy. (asu.edu)
  • The results were published in Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue. (asu.edu)
  • In 2007, Dennis Lo and his colleagues used digital polymerase chain reaction or PCR to detect trisomy 21 in maternal blood, validating the method as a means to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, or an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. (asu.edu)
  • Jeffrey Weinzweig and his team, in the US at the turn of the twenty-first century, performed a series of experiments on fetal goats to study the feasibility of repairing cleft palates on organisms still in the womb. (asu.edu)
  • Valuable proof of principle for cell-based cardiac repair was provided by early preclinical studies in which terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes from fetal and neonatal sources were transplanted into infarcted rodent hearts, resulting in improved left ventricular function. (ahajournals.org)
  • The clinical application of fetal and neonatal cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair is precluded by their limited supply and ethical concerns, and so the field has sought to identify other cardiogenic cell sources. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have identified and isolated a population of multipotent otic stem cells from the human fetal cochlea and established them as cell lines. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • DNAJA3 mRNA was detected in 50 different human fetal and adult tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Fetal brain tissue predominantly expressed DNAJA3I, while breast tissues and T-cells predominantly expressed DNAJA3L. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In the Table of Contents of the February 27, 1997 issue of Nature (the official organ of the British Association for the Advancement of Science), there appeared what seemed at first glance to be an innocuous article titled "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells" (Wilmut, et al. (apologeticspress.org)
  • IMPORTANCE SBV induces only mild clinical signs in adult ruminants but causes severe fetal malformation and, thereby, can have an important impact on animal welfare and production. (asm.org)
  • genome
  • If so, a nucleus from a fully differentiated cell retains a complete genome, capable of directing all types of specialization. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Mitochondria are located in all complex or eukaryotic cells, including plant, animal, fungi, and single celled protists, which contain their own mtDNA genome. (asu.edu)
  • Each mitochondrion in a cell can have multiple copies of the mtDNA genome. (asu.edu)
  • retinal cell
  • We performed a first systematic study of the expression and distribution of different types of ATP receptors in the retina and found that both P2X and P2Y subunits are expressed in identified adult retinal cell types, such as bipolar cells, Muller cells, and RGCs (Braendle et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • regenerate
  • Various techniques have been explored to determine the uses and limitations of techniques that enable the adult CNS to regenerate, but relatively little attention has been given to the consideration of a "reconstructed" visual system. (hindawi.com)
  • Following epithelial cell destruction, nephrons have a limited ability to regenerate, though the mechanisms and limitations that guide this phenomenon remain poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • Articles
  • Lockshin and Williams used this doctoral research as the basis for five articles, with the main title "Programmed Cell Death," that were published between 1964 and 1965 in the Journal of Insect Physiology. (asu.edu)
  • These articles examine the cytological processes, neuronal and endocrinal controls, and the influence of drugs on the mechanism of cell death observed in pupal muscle structures of the American silkmoth. (asu.edu)
  • sheep
  • They reported their results in the article 'Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line' in March 1996. (asu.edu)
  • Their experiments resulted in several sheep being born in July 1996, one of which was a sheep named Dolly born 5 July 1996. (asu.edu)
  • According to the Roslin Institute, Dolly was the first mammal to develop into an adult from the transfer of the nucleus of an adult sheep cell into an ovum with the nucleus removed. (asu.edu)
  • Their article appeared in Nature on the same day that a similar experiment, conducted by Carole Fehilly, Steen Willadsen, and Elizabeth Tucker was published regarding reproductive barriers between sheep and goats. (asu.edu)
  • Campbell and his team also cloned a sheep from adult cells in 1996, which they named Dolly. (asu.edu)
  • The experiment that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997 was different: It used a cloning technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer and resulted in an animal that was a genetic twin -- although delayed in time -- of an adult sheep. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Additionally, both mutants with an NSs deletion induced high levels of interferon and showed a marked growth defect in interferon-competent sheep SFT-R cells. (asm.org)
  • vitro
  • A difficulty with in vitro studies of the retina is that they have almost always been conducted in retinal cells obtained from embryonic or early postnatal animals. (arvojournals.org)
  • After successfully overcoming the problem of making mammalian oocytes mature in vitro in 1965, Edwards began to experiment with fertilizing matured eggs in vitro. (asu.edu)
  • 9 Consequently, the development of an efficient and simple method for the isolation and in vitro study of myogenic progenitors from adult zebrafish muscle mutants, combined with the amenability of zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screens, can significantly accelerate identification of compounds and optimization of parameters for new therapeutic approaches prior to further evaluation in mammalian disease models. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • organism
  • All cells contain within their DNA the information required to reproduce the entire organism, but in adult cells access to parts of that information has somehow been switched off. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Our laboratory studies the mechanisms that regulate growth at the level of individual cells as well as the entire organism. (berkeley.edu)
  • mitochondria
  • The mitochondria of the egg cell remained intact inside the cell. (asu.edu)
  • Mitochondria are organelles found in all cells and contain some of the cell's genetic material. (asu.edu)
  • Lynn Petra Alexander Sagan Margulis was an American biologist, whose work in the mid-twentieth century focused on cells living together in a mutually advantageous relationship, studied cells and mitochondria in the US during the second half of the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • She developed a theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells, that proposed two kinds of structures found in eukaryotic cells mitochondria in animals, and plastids in plantsÑwere once free-living bacteria that lived harmoniously and in close proximity to larger cells, a scenario called symbiosis. (asu.edu)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is located outside the nucleus in the liquid portion of the cell (cytoplasm) inside cellular organelles called Mitochondria. (asu.edu)
  • nucleus
  • To enucleate the eggs, Briggs and King used a small glass needle to puncture the cell membrane, enter the cytoplasm, and suck out the nucleus of the egg cell. (asu.edu)
  • Spindle replacement, also called spindle transfer, is the process of removing the genetic material found in the nucleus of one egg cell, or oocyte, and placing it in another egg that had its nucleus removed. (asu.edu)
  • In other words, they have not matured to the point where they have been able to carry out the instructions contained in the DNA within their nucleus that direct them to become skin cells, brain cells, eye cells, etc. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Nuclear reprogramming by transfer of an adult cell nucleus. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In experiments pioneered by Gurdon and subsequently extended by others, the nucleus of a specialized adult cell is transferred to an enucleated egg. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • This line of reasoning produced a clear experimental test: Replace an egg's nucleus with that of a specialized cell and assess whether the resulting cell could develop into a complete animal. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • progenitors
  • Adult neurogenesis and repair of the adult CNS with neural progenitors, precursors, and stem cells. (bioedonline.org)
  • Recent studies have even surmised the existence of resident cardiac stem cells, endothelial cells generating cardiomyocytes by cell contact or extracardiac progenitors for cardiomyocytes, but these findings are still controversial. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although several protocols exist for the isolation of adult myoblast progenitors from larger fish, no standardized protocol exists for the isolation of myogenic progenitors from adult zebrafish muscle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Methods: Using a variant of a mammalian myoblast isolation protocol, zebrafish muscle progenitors have been isolated from the total dorsal myotome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Conclusions: Together these studies provide a simple, yet detailed method for the isolation and culture of myogenic progenitors from adult zebrafish, while further promoting their therapeutic potential for the study of muscle disease and drug screening. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • regeneration
  • It may also be necessary to manipulate the natural environment of the adult brain to make it more conducive to regeneration. (bioedonline.org)
  • We can easily score the extent of regeneration by examining the size of the wings of adult flies. (berkeley.edu)
  • As retrograde labeling retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can isolate RGCs somata from dying sites, it has become the gold standard for counting RGCs in RGCs survival and regeneration experiments. (jove.com)
  • They believe they have uncovered pathways which they can use to restore embryonic regeneration in adults. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • West believes that giving adults the ability to have embyronic level regeneration with lengthened telomeres will enable radical life extension. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Our new method can be used to complement nephrotoxicity-induced models of AKI and gain a high-resolution understanding of the cell and molecular alterations that are associated with epithelial regeneration in the kidney nephron. (jove.com)
  • proteins
  • Enzymes are types of proteins that can catalyze reactions inside cells, reactions that produce a number of things, including nutrients that the cell needs. (asu.edu)
  • 1-3 The transplanted cells retained their cardiac phenotype, including expression of sarcomeric proteins and formation of intercalated disc structures. (ahajournals.org)
  • Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Recombinant Proteins' (2009), by Hongyan Zhou et al. (asu.edu)
  • Whirlin and other Usher proteins are expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, yet their function in the CNS has not been investigated. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our work identifies a Drosophila homolog of a deaf-blindness gene as a new component of the circadian output pathway and an important regulator of ion channel expression, and suggests novel roles for Usher proteins in the mammalian nervous system. (prolekare.cz)
  • viable
  • By means of dissection/proteinase digestion techniques, high numbers of viable mononuclear cells were harvested from human placenta at term, and a mesenchymal cell population with characteristic expression of CD9, CD29, and CD73 was obtained in culture. (jove.com)
  • neuronal
  • Using this approach, one can design experiments to study the uses of exogenous tissues in reestablishing neuronal circuits that have been damaged. (hindawi.com)
  • A cell destined to become muscle need not retain its ability to fire neuronal messages, nor must a brain cell remember how to soak up nutrients in the intestine. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In neuronal and endocrinal tissues, Wnt/β-catenin data suggest cell fate plasticity under different environmental conditions ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Optic nerve transection is a reproducible model of apoptotic neuronal cell death in the adult CNS 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • limbs
  • They studied when and where in developing limbs many cells die, and they studied the functions of cell death in wing development. (asu.edu)
  • For instance, while urodele amphibians (salamanders, newts) are capable of regenerating their limbs after amputation, mammalian limbs have very little regenerative capacity. (berkeley.edu)
  • Gurdon
  • Captivated by the observations of Briggs and King, but cognizant that technical limitations rendered their interpretations debatable, Gurdon repeated their experiments in a different frog, Xenopus laevis , which is easier to work with than the one Briggs and King had used, Rana pipiens . (laskerfoundation.org)
  • developmental
  • There is a profound developmental regulation in the sensitivity of retina ganglion cells to excitotoxic insults. (arvojournals.org)
  • Co-directed by Professors Peter Andrews and Harry Moore, our research exploits many aspects of molecular cell biology and developmental biology. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • At a time when only a few developmental biologists studied cell death, or apoptosis, Saunders and his colleagues showed that researchers could use embryological experiments to uncover the causal mechanisms of apotosis. (asu.edu)
  • ganglion
  • Toward this end, experiments were designed to determine whether embryonic retinal ganglion cells can project axons into a grafted PNS "bridge", and enter adult host targets that were partially deafferented. (hindawi.com)
  • The next day, cells were fixed and immunocytochemically stained to identify ganglion and amacrine cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Ganglion cells from adult mouse retinas were much less susceptible to excitotoxic death than those prepared from neonatal retinas. (arvojournals.org)
  • The ganglion cell death that results from optic nerve crush can be partially prevented by administration of an N -methyl- d- aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. (arvojournals.org)
  • Neuroinflammation is involved in the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve injury. (jove.com)
  • However, retrograde labeling of RGCs in adult zebrafish has not yet been reported, though some alternative methods can count cell numbers in retinal ganglion cell layers (RGCL). (jove.com)
  • In patients, the disease primarily affects the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and causes optic nerve atrophy and visual loss. (jove.com)
  • We have shown previously that, in rat retina, P2X 7 receptors are located in the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell layer (GCL). (jneurosci.org)
  • and labeling was clearly seen in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), indicating that both RGCs and subpopulations of amacrine cells express this subunit. (jneurosci.org)
  • biologists
  • The Cell in Development and Inheritance, by Edmund Beecher Wilson, provided a textbook introduction to cell biology for generations of biologists in the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • Biologists have long wondered about the process by which descendants of a single fertilized egg specialize - or differentiate - to construct an adult animal. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • cellular
  • In 2003, molecular biology and genetics researchers Coleen T. Murphy, Steven A. McCarroll, Cornelia I. Bargmann, Andrew Fraser, Ravi S. Kamath, Julie Ahringer, Hao Li, and Cynthia Kenyon conducted an experiment that investigated the cellular aging in, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nematodes. (asu.edu)
  • The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in essential cellular processes ranging from proliferation and cell specification during development to adult stem cell maintenance and wound repair ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The present study was aimed at finding whether retinal P2X 7 receptors can act as a mediator of cell permeabilization and, if so, at identifying the cellular target(s) of this effect. (jneurosci.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers extracted the egg cell from the ovary of the domestic cow and the skin cell from the skin of the gaur. (asu.edu)
  • In November 2007, Masato Nakagawa, along with a number of other researchers including Kazutoshi Takahashi, Keisuke Okita, and Shinya Yamanaka, published "Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells without Myc from Mouse and Human Fibroblasts" (abbreviated "Generation") in Nature. (asu.edu)
  • The researchers used cryopreserved gaur skin cells combined with an embryo of a domestic cow (Bos taurus). (asu.edu)
  • Previous studies have produced conflicting results, and some researchers have questioned whether stem cell therapies for failing. (bionews.org.uk)
  • In the 1990s, researchers working at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, performed cloning experiments in collaboration with PPL Therapeutics in Roslin, Scotland, on human coagulation factor IX, a protein. (asu.edu)
  • The researchers concluded that permanent nuclear changes occur as cells specialize. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • early embryo
  • With her research, Platt challenged then current theories about germ layers, the types of cells in an early embryo that develop into adult cells. (asu.edu)
  • Driesch showed that the cells of an early embryo, when separated, could each continue to develop into normal larval forms. (asu.edu)
  • human
  • We describe the isolation of undifferentiated cells that grow as self-adherent clusters (that we have termed "cardiospheres") from subcultures of postnatal atrial or ventricular human biopsy specimens and from murine hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • This report describes the identification and preliminary characterization of cells from the adult human and murine heart, which have the properties of cardiac stem cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because these cells also have been isolated and expanded from human heart biopsy specimens, they could have a significant impact on future clinical strategies to treat patients with heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Takahashi and Yamanaka also experimented with human cell cultures in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells without Myc from Mouse and Human Fibroblasts' (2007), by Masato Nakagawa et al. (asu.edu)
  • In their experiments, Wiesel and Hubel used kittens as models for human children. (asu.edu)
  • They published the results of their experiment in Human Toxoplasmosis: Occurrence in Infants as an Encephalomyelitis Verification of Transmission to Animals. (asu.edu)
  • A typical human infarct involves the loss of approximately 1 billion cardiomyocytes, and, therefore, many investigators have sought to identify endogenous or exogenous stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into committed cardiomyocytes and repopulate lost myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our laboratory studies the behavior of human auditory stem cells and is trying to develop a therapeutic approach to treat hearing loss. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Human tissues and cell lines showed differential expression of the three DNAJA3 splice variant mRNAs. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • For the human orthologs of archipelago and salvador , we identified mutations in cancer cell lines. (berkeley.edu)
  • Furthermore, we stably integrated this Ago2 cDNA into a panel of standard human cell lines via plasmid transfection or lentiviral transduction. (uni-hd.de)
  • pluripotent
  • In "Generation," the authors point to dedifferentiation of somatic cells as an avenue for generating pluripotent stem cells useful for treating specific patients and diseases. (asu.edu)
  • The appearance of genetically abnormal cells, raising from pluripotent stem cells, in culture offers a unique model to study the initiation and progression of cancer cells. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • genetically
  • When cells-but not DNA-from two or more genetically distinct individuals combine to form a new individual, the result is called a chimera. (asu.edu)
  • nuclear
  • However, the technology required for this kind of experiment was not available to Spemann at that time, so he could not test his theory of nuclear transfer or SCNT. (asu.edu)
  • Decades later, Shinya Yamanaka (Kyoto University) unlocked a new realm of practical possibilities for nuclear reprogramming when he made adult cells behave like embryonic cells by adding only a few factors. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Although much work remains to determine whether nuclear reprogramming techniques will prove safe and effective enough for clinical use, Gurdon's and Yamanaka's discoveries have opened potential avenues toward personalized cell-replacement therapies. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Thus, in the past five years, much of the scientific and ethical debate about somatic cell nuclear transfer has focused on its two potential applications: 1) for reproductive purposes, i.e., to produce a child, or 2) for producing a source of ES cells for research. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • clinical
  • Two new studies have cast further doubt on the ability of blood stem cells to turn into heart cells, even though several clinical trials based on this promising new treatment are currently underway. (bionews.org.uk)
  • We are pleased to report that there has been considerable recent progress, and cell-based cardiac repair has become a mainstream experimental concept with multiple clinical trials underway. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the early twentieth century US, Jean Paul Pratt and Edgar Allen conducted clinical experiments on women who had abnormal menstrual cycles. (asu.edu)
  • Development
  • At Columbia University in New York City, New York, Wilson studied what causes cells to differentiate during development. (asu.edu)
  • The Potency of the First Two Cleavage Cells in Echinoderm Development. (asu.edu)
  • Extensive epidemiologic studies have suggested that adult disease risk is associated with adverse environmental conditions early in development. (pnas.org)
  • The association was specific for periconceptional exposure, reinforcing that very early mammalian development is a crucial period for establishing and maintaining epigenetic marks. (pnas.org)
  • It is now possible to introduce mutations that can be activated at specific time points, or in specific cells or organs, both during development and in the adult animal. (scienceblogs.com)
  • novel
  • The discovery of adult neurogenesis also has uncovered the exciting potential for novel approaches to treating brain and spinal cord injuries. (bioedonline.org)
  • Catherine Verfaillie and colleagues at the University of Minnesota first described these novel stem cells in 2002, but other teams have had difficulty in replicating the work. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Reprogrammed cells also afford novel approaches toward understanding currently inscrutable diseases and for screening drugs to thwart these conditions. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • therapeutic
  • It acts as a volumizer in cosmetic procedures that provides a matrix for the administration of therapeutic cells or biologics to a patient. (nextbigfuture.com)