• Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward. (wikipedia.org)
  • True congenital exotropia (with a fixed exotropia) is an extremely rare form of strabismus and may occur with systemic disease in as many as 60% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Exotropia is a form of strabismus. (healthline.com)
  • Exotropia is a common form of strabismus characterized by an outward eye turn, away from the nose. (optometrists.org)
  • However, in A and V patterns, there is more commonly esotropic post-operative drift, suggesting a different strabismus mechanism Initial over-correction of about 5 prism diopters is advisable for concomitant exotropia, but should be avoided in A and V patterns. (arvojournals.org)
  • It suggests that a strabismus surgery for exotropia should be considered if reduced plus lenses fail to control. (ebscohost.com)
  • The influence of severity of exotropia (control measured by Newcastle Control Score (NCS) and angle of strabismus, visual acuity, stereoacuity) and age on the type of management was investigated. (bmj.com)
  • Exotropia is a type of strabismus (eye misalignment), where one eye turns, or deviates, outward (away from the nose). (seevividly.com)
  • Exotropia is sometimes called wall-eyed (however this is technically reserved for a rare form of bilateral strabismus called internuclear ophthalmoplegia). (seevividly.com)
  • Exotropia is a form of strabismus where an eye deviates outward. (seevividly.com)
  • Khazaeni, LM & Volpe, NJ 2006, ' Adjustable medial rectus muscle resection in adult exotropia ', Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus , vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 225-229. (northwestern.edu)
  • One common form of strabismus , or misaligned eyes, is called exotropia. (2020aec.com)
  • Exotropia (divergent strabismus) is less common than esotropia. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Exotropia less frequently leads to amblyopia because the strabismus is often alternating. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This form of strabismus can occur as a latent disorder in mild cases, meaning that the intermittent exotropia only becomes manifest under certain conditions, such as fatigue. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Intermittent distance exotropia (X(T)) is a form of childhood squint (strabismus) with an estimated prevalence of 1 % in children under 11 years [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I have exotropia strabismus and was wondering the best way to fix it. (webeyeclinic.com)
  • Ha, S & Kim, SH 2011, ' Postoperative convergence after recovery from general anesthesia in exotropia surgery ', Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus , vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 305-310. (elsevier.com)
  • Mohney, BG & Holmes, JM 2006, ' An office-based scale for assessing control in intermittent exotropia ', Strabismus , vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 147-150. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Test-retest reliability data in this study provide thresholds to help determine clinically significant change in angle of strabismus in children with intermittent exotropia. (elsevier.com)
  • The medical records of all patients who received surgery for exodeviation (constant and intermittent exotropia) performed by one surgeon (S. Baek) at the division of strabismus in Kim's Eye Hospital from December 2004 to February 2007 were reviewed and cases that showed esodeviation at any time during the follow-up were identified. (ekjo.org)
  • Another common form of strabismus is exotropia, sometimes called walleye, where the eyes turn outward. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the type of exotropia (XT) based on the distance-near (D/N) difference in recurrent XT after bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession to treat intermittent XT (IXT) to look into the possibility of secondary convergence insufficiency (CI)-type strabismus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 1 ] In their study, they evaluated differences between infants, aged younger than 1 year, with constant exotropia versus intermittent exotropia at presentation. (medscape.com)
  • This can occur all of the time, in which case it is called constant exotropia or some of the time, in which case it is called intermittent exotropia. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Deterioration is defined by the study as progression from intermittent to constant exotropia, with or without reduction in stereoacuity. (healio.com)
  • Only 0.5% (2/371) children developed constant exotropia. (nih.gov)
  • Deterioration to constant exotropia, with or without treatment, is rare. (nih.gov)
  • A patient with a constant exotropia of one eye fixates with the same eye all the time. (seevividly.com)
  • Diplopia specifically is often not reported by children if they have a constant exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • The earliest sign of exotropia is usually a noticeable outward deviation of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mean recurrent exotropia distant deviation was 28 PD ± 11.2 (range 14 to 55 PD). (hindawi.com)
  • All the patients had basic type of intermittent exotropia (IXT) and all of them underwent bilateral lateral recessions according to the preoperative angle of deviation. (scirp.org)
  • The fixation target influences the near deviation and AC/A ratio in intermittent exotropia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Amblyopia , or "lazy eye," may develop with exotropia, although it is less common than with esotropia ("crossed" eyes), as the deviation is usually intermittent. (2020aec.com)
  • Exotropia or outward eye deviation is a form of squint. (medindia.net)
  • Exotropia refers to outward deviation of an eye. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • There is a higher incidence of amblyopia in congenital exotropia than in other forms of exotropia. (medscape.com)
  • Although children can lose vision in one eye if it is turned constantly, vision loss or amblyopia is less likely to occur with this intermittent form of exotropia. (advocarepedseyes.com)
  • Individuals with intermittent exotropia often do not have amblyopia. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • Therefore, it may not be a problem even if alternate prism cover test is performed in any eye in intermittent exotropia of more than 50 prism diopter without amblyopia or refraction abnormality that could affect the uncorrected visual acuity. (bvsalud.org)
  • A common form of exotropia is known as "convergence insufficiency" that responds well to orthoptic vision therapy including exercises. (wikipedia.org)
  • This the most common form of exotropia, occurs when the eye turn is only present occasionally. (optometrists.org)
  • Methods: A retrospective chart review of 21 children with intermittent exotropia was performed. (elsevier.com)
  • Children with Intermittent Exotropia rarely see double (diplopia) and are often unaware that one of their eyes is turning out. (advocarepedseyes.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate a new scale for assessing the level of control in children with intermittent exotropia. (elsevier.com)
  • This new scale for assessing control in children with intermittent exotropia can be easily applied in the office setting and characterizes the wide range of control in this disorder. (elsevier.com)
  • Brian G. Mohney, MD, department of ophthalmology at the Mayo Clinic, and colleagues wrote that intermittent exotropia (IXT), "which occurs in nearly 1% of children in the United States and up to 4% of children in Asia, generally manifests more frequently with distance viewing, illness or fatigue. (healio.com)
  • In an article published in the March 2010 issue of the American Journal of Ophthalmology, researchers from the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN, followed 135 patients with intermittent exotropia over a 20-year period and found that slightly more than 90% of these children became nearsighted by the time they reached their 20s. (news-medical.net)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate current patterns of management and outcomes of intermittent distance exotropia [X(T)] in the UK. (nih.gov)
  • Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yet where the evidence base for treatment options is limited, as with intermittent distance exotropia (X(T)), this presents a challenge for families and clinicians. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The term congenital exotropia is typically reserved for patients presenting in the first year of life with a large, constant angle. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] They found that "half of infantile exotropia patients may present with intermittent exotropia, with similar clinical outcomes regardless of presentation. (medscape.com)
  • In a 2008 study of 12 patients with intermittent exotropia treated with bilateral lateral rectus recession, stereoacuity, as seen in the late follow-up period, measured at 40 arcsec in 2 patients, 100 arcsec in 3 patients, 140-400 arcsec in 2 patients, and none in 5 patients. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with craniofacial syndromes, ocular albinism, midline defects, and cerebral palsy may present with congenital exotropia. (medscape.com)
  • Data from patients with exotropia, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (patientslikeme.com)
  • The researchers examined the ocular posture stability of patients with intermittent exotropia over a period of 3 years without any treatment. (healio.com)
  • However, treatment options should always be discussed with patients with eye fatigue or cosmetic concerns so we can help improve our patients' control of their exotropia. (healio.com)
  • Forty-one consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral MR muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after BLR muscle recession were included in this retrospective study. (hindawi.com)
  • All patients underwent bilateral LR recession to alleviate exotropia under general anaesthesia based on surgical Table 1 . (scirp.org)
  • This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus muscle recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence weakness. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients who had intermittent exotropia with convergence weakness was enrolled to the slanted lateral rectus muscle recession group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We investigated ON paths and gaze-related globe movements differ in patients with exotropia (XT, 30.5±6.5Δ SEM) and hypertropia (HT,10.5±2.8Δ). (arvojournals.org)
  • Objective recording of accommodation dynamics was performed in four patients with divergence excess exotropia (two true and two simulated) and in three visually normal control subjects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The overall findings from this meta-analysis indicated that the conventional R&R procedure is associated with higher success rates and lower recurrence rates in patients with basic intermittent exotropia. (springermedizin.de)
  • Patients with moderate or severe exophoria are more likely to develop intermittent exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • Methods: The charts of 60 consecutive adult patients with exotropia undergoing lateral rectus muscle recession and adjustable medial rectus muscle resection from November 1998 to August 2003 were reviewed. (northwestern.edu)
  • Methods: The study subjects included 10 patients with exotropia who had undergone surgery in one eye (recession and resection). (elsevier.com)
  • Five patients with infantile exotropia that had developed at under 12 months of age were allocated to group A. Another five, with intermittent exotropia that had developed at over 12 months of age, were allocated to group B. In all patients, medial recti were resected by 3-4 mm in order to obtain tissue samples, which were then examined under an electron microscope. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical course of esodeviation after exotropia surgery in older patients (older than 15 years) and to compare it with that in younger patients (15 years or younger). (ekjo.org)
  • The postoperative esodeviation of patients older than 15 years after exotropia surgery tended to persist longer during the early postoperative period than that of patients 15 years or younger, however, the difference did not persist at postoperative six months. (ekjo.org)
  • Abraham and Richard provided reviews of exotropia surgery in adults older than 15 years, 9 yet there has been few reports on comparing consecutive esodeviation after exotropia surgery in patients older than 15 years with that of patients younger than 15. (ekjo.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the time course of the consecutive esodeviation after exotropia surgery in patients older than 15 years, compared their clinical courses with those of patients 15 years or younger, and tried to identify the factors influencing the differences in clinical courses between the two groups. (ekjo.org)
  • A prospective study done in Tanta university in the period between January 2017 and June 2018.It included 16 patients with sensory exotropia ≥50PD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the prevalence of the prism adaptation response in patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) using the short-term prism adaptation test (PAT) and to assess factors associated with prism adaptation response in IXT patients. (ekjo.org)
  • A comprehensive eye examination including an ocular motility (i.e., eye movement) evaluation and an evaluation of the internal ocular structures allows an eye doctor to accurately diagnose exotropia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence of systemic and ocular disease in infantile exotropia: comparison with infantile esotropia. (medscape.com)
  • Patient's ocular examination shows yellow reflex and exotropia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Is either intermittent exotropia or ocular motor dysfunction a disability? (healthtap.com)
  • To measure and analyze ocular deviations between dominant and non-dominant eyes using video-oculography (VOG) in intermittent exotropia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sensory exotropia" occurs in the presence of poor vision in one eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction. (curehunter.com)
  • Postoperative exo-shift of about 5 prism diopters occurs in initial and re-operated concomitant exotropia. (arvojournals.org)
  • Intermittent exotropia is a subset of exotropia that occurs only once and a while. (seevividly.com)
  • Exotropia, or "walleye," occurs when the eyes turn outward. (2020aec.com)
  • Secondary exotropia occurs with reduced visual acuity in one eye resulting from disease or trauma. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Consecutive exotropia occurs after esotropia surgery. (alpfmedical.info)
  • The exotropia occurs more than 50% of the day. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • Significant exotropia occurs when the individual intently views objects at near. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • Intermittent exotropia, a condition in which the eyes turn outward while looking at an object, occurs in about 1% of American children and is less common than esotropia, where the eyes turn inward. (news-medical.net)
  • This trial aims to determine which treatment modality is better for treatment of the convergence insufficiency subtype of intermittent exotropia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Can intermittent exotropia be caused by convergence insufficiency? (optometrists.org)
  • Exotropia/Convergence Insufficiency and ACM1? (asap.org)
  • Preston saw a neuro-opthalmalogist last week and she stated that he has mild ptosis and is having issues with convergence insufficiency/exotropia. (asap.org)
  • Re: Exotropia/Convergence Insufficiency and ACM1? (asap.org)
  • Purpose: Intermittent exotropia may be decreased by stimulation of accommodative convergence. (elsevier.com)
  • Intermittent exotropia is often associated with convergence insufficiency , a condition where the patient has adequate control of eye position when viewing at a distance, but a high exophoria (outward eye position) at near that may fatigue over time to become an exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • Exotropia associated with convergence insufficiency is more common in older school-aged children as well as adults. (seevividly.com)
  • Convergence insufficiency is a type of exotropia characterized by a deficiency of the eyes to converge on a near object, e.g. while reading. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • Exophoria and exotropia are closely related. (healthline.com)
  • Both exophoria and exotropia are conditions that cause the eyes to drift outward. (healthline.com)
  • The affected eye is generally turned outward (exotropia) and downward (hypotropia). (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • For an abnormal result, based on where the light lands on the cornea, the examiner can detect if there is an exotropia (abnormal eye is turned out), esotropia (abnormal eye is turned in), hypertropia (abnormal eye higher than the normal one) or hypotropia (abnormal eye is lower than the normal one). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourteen subjects who were diagnosed with intermittent exotropia from July 2017 to July 2018 with age of 5 or more, visual acuity of 20/30 or better and corrected visual acuity of 20/25 or more and difference in vision of both eyes of 1 line or less on Snellen optotype were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • The distinguishing sign of exotropia is one or either eye wandering outward. (seevividly.com)
  • The main sign of exotropia is an eye that is not straight. (2020aec.com)
  • Exotropia is a category of squint wherein the eyes of the patient are deviated towards the temple or in simple words the eyes are out turned. (pinkcityretina.com)
  • A child with exotropia may close, squint, or rub one eye (usually the deviating eye), particularly in bright, sunny environments. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • Jeoung JW, Lee MJ, Hwang J-M et al (2006) Bilateral lateral rectus recession versus unilateral recess-resect procedure for exotropia with a dominant eye. (springermedizin.de)
  • Purpose: To describe the success of a unilateral recess/resect procedure incorporating an adjustable medial rectus muscle resection in the treatment of adult exotropia. (northwestern.edu)
  • vision therapy has shown promising results if the consecutive exotropia is intermittent, alternating, and of small magnitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICD-9 code 378.15 for Alternating exotropia is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -DISORDERS OF THE EYE AND ADNEXA (360-379). (aapc.com)
  • Alternating exotropia refers to how a patient fixates. (seevividly.com)
  • H50.34 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of intermittent alternating exotropia. (icd.codes)
  • Infantile exotropia (sometimes called "congenital exotropia") is seen during the first year of life, and is less common than "essential exotropia" which usually becomes apparent several years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital exotropia is extremely rare in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • The worldwide incidence of congenital exotropia is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • No known racial predisposition to congenital exotropia exists. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital exotropia presents in infants younger than 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • however, congenital exotropia does not occur at a higher rate in premature children. (medscape.com)
  • To evaluate the surgical outcomes of unilateral or bilateral medial rectus (MR) muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) muscle recession based on a novel surgical formula. (hindawi.com)
  • Sensory results after lateral rectus muscle recession for intermittent exotropia operated before two years of age. (medscape.com)
  • Modern optometric approaches to management of intermittent exotropia are. (ebscohost.com)
  • To investigate factors associated with early management of intermittent exotropia [X(T)] in Hospital Eye departments in the UK. (bmj.com)
  • To compare the outcomes between bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) and unilateral recession resection (R&R) procedures in the treatment of basic intermittent exotropia. (springermedizin.de)
  • This was one of the more recent studies conducted on intermittent exotropia by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (healio.com)
  • All surgeries were performed according to the formula: 1.0 mm MR muscle resection for every 5 prism dioptres (PD) of exotropia, with an addition of 0.5 mm to each MR muscle operated on. (hindawi.com)
  • Mean pre-operative central gaze exotropia was 9.1±7.0 prism diopters. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, in pattern exotropia, post-operative drift was more variable, with mean esotropic drift of approximately 5 prism diopters (r=0.18). (arvojournals.org)
  • Background To compare outcomes following contralateral lateral rectus (LR) recession and recess-resect (RR) procedures for recurrent exotropia of 20-25 prism dioptres (PD) after unilateral RR. (bmj.com)
  • Measured by alternate prism cover test for near and far,which is considered successful if within10 prism diopter esotropia or exotropia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conclusion: Different patterns of tendon axonal profiles were seen in association with the two types of exotropia. (elsevier.com)
  • The causes of exotropia are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known causes of exotropia include a third cranial nerve palsy, exotropic Duane syndrome, Brown syndrome (in upgaze), and previous eye muscle surgery. (idealeyecarelv.com)
  • What are the symptoms of exotropia? (optometrists.org)
  • Symptoms of exotropia may be exacerbated by prolonged reading, desk work, and computer use. (optometrists.org)
  • Having worked in both the binocular vision clinic and community clinics, I am not surprised with the results of the study that most cases of intermittent exotropia do remain stable over time without any surgical intervention or vision therapy. (healio.com)
  • Long-term outcome of uncomplicated infantile exotropia. (medscape.com)
  • Infantile exotropia. (medscape.com)
  • Infantile exotropia is evident shortly after birth and often before 6 months of age. (seevividly.com)
  • Consecutive exotropia arises after an initial esotropia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consecutive exotropia may however also spontaneously develop from esotropia, without surgery or botulinum toxin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vision training for consecutive exotropia and rehabilitation of stereoscopic vision can be achieved without interrupting sports-specific activities and competitive play. (ebscohost.com)
  • 6 - 8 In general, a consecutive esotropia is defined as continued esodeviation for six months following surgery for exotropia, and Edelman et al. (ekjo.org)
  • Unilateral or bilateral MR muscle resection using our surgical formula is a safe and effective method for calculating the amount of MR resection in moderate to large angle recurrent exotropia, with a low overcorrection rate. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this work was the evaluation of the effect of the limbus insertion distance (LID) of the lateral rectus on the surgical results of bilateral lateral rectus recession in intermittent exotropia (IXT) in children and adults. (scirp.org)
  • Wang L, Wu Q, Kong X et al (2013) Comparison of bilateral lateral rectus recession and unilateral recession resection for basic type intermittent exotropia in children. (springermedizin.de)
  • Choi J, Chang JW, Kim SJ et al (2012) The long-term survival analysis of bilateral lateral rectus recession versus unilateral recession-resection for intermittent exotropia. (springermedizin.de)
  • The present study is being conducted to assess the natural history of intermittent exotropia and to establish the effectiveness of occlusion in its treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background: A multitude of ophthalmic treatment and management strategies have been successful for the treatment of exotropia, some of which include home-based exercise programs and vision training programs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Conclusions Contralateral LR recession was found to be a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of recurrent exotropia of 20-25 PD after unilateral RR for intermittent exotropia. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions: Treatment of intermittent exotropia with overcorrecting minus lens did not induce refractive errors changes, even considering age, treatment period, initial spherical equivalent and overcorrection magnitude used. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally in adults who have had exotropia since childhood, the brain may adapt to using a "blind-spot", whereby it receives images from both eyes, but no full image from the deviating eye, thus avoiding double vision, and in fact, increasing peripheral vision on the side of the deviating eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Govindan M, Mohney BG, Diehl NN et al (2005) Incidence and types of childhood exotropia: a population-based study. (springermedizin.de)
  • Surgery should be used as a last resort only for large angle intermittent exotropia. (optometrists.org)
  • All underwent, as a primary surgery for intermittent exotropia, unilateral RR on the non-dominant eye. (bmj.com)
  • Kushner BJ (1998) Selective surgery for intermittent exotropia based on distance/near differences. (springermedizin.de)
  • Zhang M, Lu S, Liu H et al (2011) Comparison of surgical outcomes of intermittent exotropia with different surgery. (springermedizin.de)
  • Purpose: To compare eye position at the end of surgery under general anesthesia with strabismic angles on postoperative day 1 in exotropia surgery. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 , 2 Many investigators have proposed that an overcorrection of 8 to 10 PD is desirable, and Oh and Hwang 3 demonstrated that early postoperative overcorrection is the only predictor of a successful long-term outcome after exotropia surgery. (ekjo.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, most studies related to exotropia surgery have been limited to children. (ekjo.org)
  • To evaluate a technique using resected medial rectus muscle transplantation for elongation of Lateral rectus tendon as a monocular surgery for large angle sensory exotropia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although early post-surgical over-correction for exotropia is widely advised, post-operative drift has not been well quantified in concomitant exotropia, and has not been described with A and V patterns. (arvojournals.org)
  • Intermittent Exotropia: Management Options and Surgical Outcomes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background: This paper reflects an effort to recreate a modern analysis of a 1985 study on surgical outcomes of intermittent exotropia. (ebscohost.com)
  • 3 ] compared the long-term surgical outcomes of BLR recession and R&R in the basic-type intermittent exotropia, and found that they were better in the eyes treated using BLR recession than in those treated with R&R. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exotropia is often treated by surgically adjusting the tension on the eye muscles under general anesthesia. (2020aec.com)
  • Vision in his left eye is hands motion (HM), a small angle exotropia is evident, and slitlamp examination revealed severe corneal opacification and vascularization. (ebscohost.com)
  • We analyzed variability associated with test-retest differences and short-term variability in the condition, to provide thresholds for assessing clinically significant, long-term change in angle of intermittent exotropia. (elsevier.com)