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  • dystrophin
  • Unfortunately, the simultaneous skipping of a large number of exons at a stretch is very challenging and thus far multiexon skipping levels are too low to result in detectable levels of dystrophin and are thus too low to be beneficial (van Vliet et al. (fitness-vip.com)
  • genomes
  • transposon mediated exon shuffling, crossover during sexual recombination of parental genomes and illegitimate recombination . (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of eukaryotes is mediated by sexual recombination of parental genomes and since introns are longer than exons most of the crossovers occur in noncoding regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different mechanisms through which exon shuffling occurs: transposon mediated exon shuffling, crossover during sexual recombination of parental genomes and illegitimate recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Moreover, to define more precisely the time when exon shuffling became significant in eukaryotes, the evolutionary distribution of modular proteins that evolved through this mechanism were examined in different organisms (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Exon shuffling was first introduced in 1978 when Walter Gilbert discovered that the existence of introns could play a major role in the evolution of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, exon shuffling became a major role in the construction of younger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • A potential mechanism for exon shuffling is the long interspersed element (LINE) -1 mediated 3' transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • expressed region
  • The term exon derives from the expressed region and was coined by American biochemist Walter Gilbert in 1978: "The notion of the cistron… must be replaced by that of a transcription unit containing regions which will be lost from the mature messenger - which I suggest we call introns (for intragenic regions) - alternating with regions which will be expressed - exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • regions
  • The deletions tend to cluster around the major hotspot (exons 45-53, 75% of all deletions) and the minor hotspot (exons 2-20, 20% of all deletions) and thus the skipping of exons in these regions is applicable to larger patient groups (Aartsma-Rus et al. (fitness-vip.com)
  • different
  • Additionally exons can be classified into nine different groups based on the phase of the flanking introns (symmetrical: 0-0, 1-1, 2-2 and asymmetrical: 0-1, 0-2, 1-0, 1-2, etc. (wikipedia.org)