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  • PATIENTS
  • The primary objective is to comparatively evaluate the isolated effects of a long-acting beta2-adrenergic (formoterol fumarate 12µg b.i.d. via Aeroliser) and combined with a long-acting anti-cholinergic (tiotropium bromide 18µg o.d via Handihaler) on breathlessness, dynamic hyperinflation and exercise tolerance in patients with advanced, but stable, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • intervention
  • Without knowledge of these features, any absolute or per cent increase in tolerance time to a single constant-load exercise bout must be interpreted with caution regarding the physiological benefit(s) that have accrued from the intervention. (ersjournals.com)
  • These recommendations were based on the demonstrations that the improvement in the maximum work rate attained on the ramp-type incremental exercise test, in response to a particular intervention, was relatively small and often close to the limit of the "minimum clinically important difference" 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • In contrast, the change in time to the limit of tolerance ( t LIM ) on a constant-load test, chosen to be a high fraction of the maximum incremental work rate, was shown to be appreciably larger and hence considered to be more discriminatory, to the extent that investigators now often forego the post-intervention maximum incremental test 4 - 6 . (ersjournals.com)
  • physiological
  • Exercise tolerance or physiological fitness appears to be important in quantifying the relation between alcohol intake and blood pressure and should be considered in describing this relation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating digestive health, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • maximal
  • 2. The effects of 2 weeks on two levels of salt intake (50 and 150 mmol/day) on the ability to exercise (60% of maximal oxygen uptake) in a hot environment (35°C) were studied in eight healthy normotensive subjects. (clinsci.org)
  • Each evaluation include a stepwise exercise test on an ergocycle up to the individual maximal capacity during which minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and arterial lactic acid concentration will be measured and the peripheral muscle strength will be determined with the one repetition maximum for eight different muscle groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Clinical
  • Participants will undergo an exercise stress test performed by a clinical exercise physiologist using an electronically-braked recumbent cycle ergometer to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2 max). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing, the authors recognised that "although the incremental protocol is most widely used in clinical practice, constant work rate protocols are gaining popularity because of their clinical applicability, particularly for monitoring response(s) to therapy" 1 . (ersjournals.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical trials for adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension use exercise capacity, as measured by walking distance, as the primary endpoint to measure symptomatic improvement. (biomedsearch.com)
  • airway
  • The role of the physiotherapist is not limited to airway clearance, but also includes encouragement and advice regarding exercise, posture and mobility, inhalation therapy and, in the later stages of the disease process, non-invasive respiratory support. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were elevated after 2 weeks on the reduced salt intake and remained so during exercise. (clinsci.org)
  • 5. The estimated sweat rate during exercise was similar on the two salt intakes but the loss of sodium was less on the low salt intake. (clinsci.org)
  • effect
  • The effect of tolamolol on exercise time and heart rate was compared with that of propranolol. (bmj.com)
  • Plasma
  • 4. Plasma sodium, potassium and osmolality were similar on the two salt intakes both before and during exercise. (clinsci.org)
  • oxygen
  • No differences in mean oxygen uptake, heart rate or rectal temperature during exercise were observed between the two salt intakes. (clinsci.org)