Loading...
  • Mechanisms
  • It also provides the theoretical basis for the main unit operations of the advanced lithographic process, as well as for advanced lithographic imaging mechanisms, including photochemical and radiochemical, imprint, and directed block copolymer self-assembly imaging mechanisms. (spie.org)
  • reaction
  • The ability to see the world starts with a photochemical reaction in the eye , in which retinal, a molecule in the photoreceptor cell rhodopsin , isomerizes (or changes shape) about a double bond after absorbing light. (britannica.com)
  • Ozone protects Earth's surface from intense, deep ultraviolet (UV) irradiation , which is damaging to DNA and is formed in the stratosphere by a photochemical dissociation (separation) of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) into individual oxygen atoms, followed by subsequent reaction of those oxygen atoms with molecular oxygen to produce ozone (O 3 ). (britannica.com)
  • This reaction takes place from the singlet excited state of the reactant. (rsc.org)
  • As the reaction proceeds and enough Bip accumulates in the solution, a photosensitized process starts, where Bip photoinduces the oxidation of H 2 Bip to Bip, and H 2 O 2 is formed. (rsc.org)
  • However, the involvement of short-lived electronically excited states inherent to any photochemical pattern makes it challenging for a chiral catalyst to dictate the stereochemistry of the reaction products. (iciq.es)
  • The photochemically allowed [1,sigmatropic hydrogen migration (H shift) in CHT is a classical example of a pericyclic reaction associated with internal conversion processes. (kit.edu)
  • For this type of reaction, it is believed that a symmetric dark state is involved as has been demonstrated for the cyclization of butadiene. (kit.edu)
  • photochemistry
  • The Exploration of Supramolecular Systems and Nanostructures by Photochemical Techniques not only discusses the latest advances of the field of supramolecular photochemistry but it also offers technical and operative details useful in the laboratory. (indigo.ca)
  • mechanism
  • Its mechanism is explained by the internal conversion from aromatic ππ* to πσ* states via conical intersection. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We will report full of our observation together with theoretical calculations of potential energy surfaces of ππ* and πσ* states, and will discuss the ESHT mechanism and its cluster size-dependence between n = 3 and 5. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A unique mechanism of catalysis was proposed, wherein the catalyst is actively involved in both the photochemical activation of the substrates, by inducing the transient formation of chiral electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes, and the stereoselectivity-defining event. (iciq.es)
  • The mechanism of PS photolysis in the solid state (film) depends on the mobility of free radicals in the polymer matrix and their bimolecular recombination. (scribd.com)
  • biological
  • P. Vigny and M. Duquesne (1976) in "Excited States of Biological Molecules", J. B. Birks Ed., Wiley, pp. 167-177. (springer.com)
  • It aims to attract biologists, chemists, physicists, and engineers who are interested in biological processes. (elsevier.com)
  • Dissociating the split GFP into constituent parts with light irradiation not only remedies this problem but also invites the opportunity for noninvasive optical control of biological processes. (pnas.org)
  • Optical techniques for investigating biological processes in vivo can achieve subcellular spatial and millisecond temporal resolution by using genetically encoded light-responsive proteins ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to cumulative alterations of skin structure, function and appearance. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • solar
  • To accurately predict inactivation and design engineered systems that enhance solar inactivation, it is necessary to model these processes, although some details are not yet sufficiently well understood. (rsc.org)
  • Dye-sensitized solar cells have now reached a high degree of maturity in theoretical and experimental understanding of the various microscopic processes contributing to the overall working principle. (hindawi.com)
  • Proteins
  • This observation suggests that these proteins can be engineered to provide active control of in vivo processes as optogenetic tools in addition to their conventional roles as passive imaging reporters. (pnas.org)
  • occur
  • The formation of ozone is just one example of the many kinds of photochemical changes that can occur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Indirect photochemical processes may also occur at the surface of soils owing to the presence of organic matter originating from plant debris in various stages of decay [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These processes may of course occur in aqueous solutions, in the atmosphere, on plant leaves, and at the surface of soils. (hindawi.com)
  • reactivity
  • The two cover images were provided by Krishnamoorthy and colleagues with the Perspective on excited state intramolecular charge transfer and Jeffrey Reimers and Zheng-Li Cai highlighting their Perspective on the hydrogen bonding and reactivity of water to azines . (rsc.org)
  • We are particularly interested in the reactivity of radicals in the ground and excited states. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Our research aims to identify novel reactivity concepts that could redefine the synthetic potential of venerable organic processes. (iciq.es)
  • transient
  • The consequence of molecules ' absorbing light is the creation of transient excited states whose chemical and physical properties differ greatly from the original molecules. (britannica.com)
  • Expanding upon our recent results, we are investigating further applications of photo-organocatalysis , where key transient intermediates of organocatalytic processes in the ground state actively participate in the photo-excitation of substrates, without the need for an external metal-based photosensitiser. (iciq.es)
  • spectroscopy
  • The concluding part introduces the principles of design and operation of the solid state laser and picoseconds spectroscopy methods. (elsevier.com)
  • Simple qualitative models, such as the perimeter model, are used to describe the nature of electronic states, and this book reveals how these states are probed by spectroscopy with ordinary and polarized light, including natural and magnetic circular dichroism. (tanum.no)
  • surfaces
  • A micro stamping process applying heat and pressure, also referred to as hot embossing lithography, can replicate micro-structures on polymer surfaces. (spie.org)
  • atoms
  • Electrons, atoms, and molecules normally do not remain in an excited state for very long. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He was recognized for "his work in developing novel algorithms for the simulation of electronically excited states consisting of hundreds of atoms and for applying these techniques to the characterization of photochemical processes in DNA, and for his work in developing open-ended research projects to be integrated into undergraduate teaching laboratories. (osc.edu)
  • solid-state
  • In the current study, Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO 4 solid-state lasers were used to micromachine carbon nanocomposite thermoplastic materials. (spie.org)
  • pump-probe
  • 2) Pump-Probe Experiments of Excited State Structure (E. Trzop, A. Makal and B. Fournier), and (3) Treatment of Liquid-Jet Injection LCLS Data With Examples by N. Zatsepin (ASU). (iucr.org)
  • This process has been studied in 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (CHT) and its perdeuterated counterpart (CHT-d8) in liquid cyclohexane by femtosecond pump-probe experiments with 50 fs time resolution. (kit.edu)
  • semiconductor
  • Photography and xerography are both based upon photochemical processes, while the manufacture of semiconductor chips or the preparation of masks for printing newspapers relies on UV light to destroy molecules in selected regions of polymer masks. (britannica.com)
  • kinetic
  • Part II examines primary visual processes, including kinetic experimental work on rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, and theoretical concepts on primary events in vision. (elsevier.com)
  • In a first step, we studied the photochemical behaviour at the surface of clays from the kinetic as well as from the analytical point of view. (hindawi.com)
  • asymmetric
  • Our main research interest is on the discovery and mechanistic elucidation of new asymmetric organocatalytic and photochemical processes that address unsolved problems in synthetic methodology. (iciq.es)
  • photon
  • The electron then becomes excited, meaning that it has more energy than it did before being hit by the photon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recently, photon-driven processes at adsorbate substrate interfaces has received considerable attention in the research community and for both fundamental and practical reasons. (dtic.mil)
  • light
  • Since this change was originally made possible by absorbed light energy, it is known as a photochemical change. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Light-exposed areas are dissolved, exposing parts of the silicon dioxide layer, which are removed by an etching process (c). (britannica.com)
  • The results show that strand photodissociation is a two-step process involving light-activated cis-trans isomerization of the chromophore followed by light-independent strand dissociation. (pnas.org)
  • research
  • Finally, priorities for future research are identified that will further our understanding of the key role that sunlight disinfection plays in natural systems and the potential to enhance this process in engineered systems. (rsc.org)
  • Herbert was among twenty awardees nominated by the National Science Foundation for the award -the highest honor that beginning researchers can receive in the United States - for exemplary integration of "research and education within the context of the mission of their organization. (osc.edu)
  • John's research is cutting-edge, and we're pleased to be able to share with him our state-of-the-art computing and storage resources. (osc.edu)
  • derivatives
  • 4) The 9-silaphenanthrenes were prepared for the first time by the steady-state photolysis of 9,10-dihydro-9-silaphenanthrene derivatives and their electronic structure was clarified in comparison with that of phenanthrene. (nii.ac.jp)
  • fluorescent
  • Split GFPs have been widely applied for imaging as fluorescent reporters of cellular processes, because they are small (∼25 kDa), are stable in cytosol, produce chromophores autocatalytically, and are amenable to mutation and circular permutation ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • interaction
  • Some of these phenomena cannot be studied using traditional methods because they involve the interaction between different electronic states. (qmul.ac.uk)