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  • glutamatergic
  • xCT and glutamatergic dysfunction have been implicated in a range of disorders of the central nervous system including schizophrenia, drug addiction and depression (3). (novusbio.com)
  • Pathways
  • Among its related pathways are Circadian entrainment and Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds . (genecards.org)
  • molecular
  • Membrane transporters facilitate active transport of their specific substrates, often against their electrochemical gradients across the membrane, through coupling the process to various sources of cellular energy, for example, ATP binding and hydrolysis in primary transporters, and pre-established electrochemical gradient of molecular species other than the substrate in the case of secondary transporters. (springer.com)
  • Here, using a number of membrane transporters from diverse families, we present common protocols used in setting up and performing molecular dynamics simulations of membrane transporters and in analyzing the results, in order to characterize relevant motions of the system. (springer.com)
  • Aberrant amino acid metabolism has been reported in Huntington's disease (HD), but its molecular origins are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • We identify a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress that underlies multiple degenerative processes in HD. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings establish a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • physiological
  • L-aspartate is considered a non-essential amino acid, meaning that, under normal physiological conditions, sufficient amounts of the amino acid are synthesized in the body to meet the body's requirements. (drugbank.ca)
  • transport
  • These transporters mediate cysteine entry in exchange for intracellular glutamate and conditions impacting this transporter affect the transport of cysteine into cells (6, 7). (migranade.com)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD, reflecting oxidative stress generated by impaired cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD because of oxidative stress contributed by aberrant cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • The various transporters have different properties both with respect to their transport functions and with respect to their ability to act as ion channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • brain
  • The most important and most abundant transporters for removal of transmitter glutamate in the brain are EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 (GLAST), while GAT1 and GAT3 are the major GABA transporters in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are, respectively, the major inhibitory and the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system ( 1 - 3 ), and are thereby involved directly or indirectly in most aspects of normal brain function including cognition, memory, and learning. (frontiersin.org)
  • therapeutic
  • There is currently no clinically approved and/or marketed medicine that relies upon pidolic acid as an active ingredient for any formal therapeutic indication. (drugbank.ca)