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  • neurotoxic
  • Moreover, brain structures which are considered anatomical substrata for learning and memory may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic actions of these excitatory amino acids, especially in the elderly who are also the segment of the population most susceptible to impairments of mnemonic function. (springer.com)
  • Kainic acid: Neurotoxic effects after intraocular injection. (springer.com)
  • Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920. (pnas.org)
  • 1971). Subsequent studies showed that there was a good correlation between the neurotoxic and neuroexcitatory potencies of a range of related amino acids, suggesting that there was a direct causal relationship between cellular activation and cell death (see Rothman and Olney, 1987). (springer.com)
  • Coyle JT (1983): Neurotoxic action of kainic acid. (springer.com)
  • 1990
  • Butcher SP, Bullock R, Graham DI, McCulloch J (1990): Correlation between amino acid release and neuropathologic outcome in rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion. (springer.com)
  • vitro
  • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J. Amino acid neurotoxicity: intracellular sites of calcium accumulation associated with the onset of irreversible damage to rat cerebellar neurones in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Glutamatergic agonists delivered to retinal ganglion cells, either in vivo 6 7 or in vitro, 8 9 are toxic to ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • calcium
  • Additionally, calcium pump activity and calbindin-D28k expression were dramatically increased after GHE treatment, implicating that the modulation of calcium homeostasis could be involved in the mechanism underlying neuroprotection of GHE against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mice
  • 1% ibotenic acid and lesions of the inferior olivary nuclei induced by i.p. injection of 3-acetylpyridine in C57BL/6 mice little affected the dynamic characteristics of the HVOR and HOKR, but abolished the adaptation of the HOKR. (muscimol.xyz)
  • ibotenic
  • Gossypium herbaceam extracts attenuate ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our data showed that oral administration with GHE at the doses of 35, 70 and 140 mg/kg exerted an improved effect on the learning and memory impairment in rats induced by intracerebral injection of ibotenic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings suggest that GHE afforded a beneficial inhibition on pro-apoptosis proteins expression following ibotenic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • synthetic
  • Geranium-derived and synthetic l -quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. (pnas.org)
  • cells
  • Finally, group I mGluR agonists also protect cells from death programs initiated by glucose starvation and cystine deprivation. (jneurosci.org)