• First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One challenge in studying genetic architecture is that the classical population genetics that catalysed the modern evolutionary synthesis must be updated to take into account modern molecular knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept found its most well-known form in the modern evolutionary synthesis of the early 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
  • One group of developmental psychologists who have embraced evolutionary perspectives are nativists, who argue than infants possess innate cognitive mechanisms (or modules) which allow them to acquire crucial information, such as language (for a prominent example, see universal grammar). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary psychologists have postulated that the mind is composed of cognitive modules specialized to perform specific tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary psychologists have theorized that these specialized modules enabled our ancestors to react quickly and effectively to environmental challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurobiological research does not support the assumption by evolutionary psychologists that higher-level systems in the neocortex responsible for complex functions are massively modular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading evolutionary psychologists Leda Cosmides and John Tooby have found that performance on the selection task is content-dependent: People find it easier to detect violations of "if-then" rules when the rules can be interpreted as cheating on a social contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this Cosmides and Tooby and other evolutionary psychologists concluded that the mind consisted of domain-specific, context-sensitive modules (including a cheater-detection module). (wikipedia.org)
  • The following quote, from Darwin's Origin of Species, is often interpreted by evolutionary psychologists as indication of his foreshadowing the emergence of the field: In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary psychologists say that natural selection has provided humans with many psychological adaptations, in much the same way that it generated humans' anatomical and physiological adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary psychologists say that animals, just as they evolve physical adaptations, evolve psychological adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that natural selection mostly generates specialized adaptations, which are more efficient than general adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is evolutionary behavior? (psychologytoday.com)
  • The growth of evolutionary physiology is also reflected by the emergence of subdisciplines, such as evolutionary endocrinology, which addresses such hybrid questions as "What are the most common endocrine mechanisms that respond to selection on behavior or life-history traits? (wikipedia.org)
  • Normative (or prescriptive) evolutionary ethics, by contrast, seeks not to explain moral behavior, but to justify or debunk certain normative ethical theories or claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these traps may take place within any type of behavioral context (e.g. mate selection, navigation, nest-site selection), the most empirically and theoretically well-understood type of evolutionary trap is the ecological trap which represents maladaptive habitat selection behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • EDP considers both the reliably developing, species-typical features of ontogeny (developmental adaptations), as well as individual differences in behavior, from an evolutionary perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary approaches to human behavior were, and to some extent continue to be, considered a form of genetic determinism and dismissive of the role of culture and experience in shaping human behavior (see Standard social science model). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary perspectives do not see the behavior of fathers who abandon their families, solely based on passing down genetic information, but also through a social perspective as father involvement is an adaptation that has been shaped by the environment and experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilson discussed eusociality in his 1975 book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis , which jumpstarted the field of modern sociobiology by connecting complex behaviors to evolutionary trends. (wired.com)
  • The modern revival of evolutionary ethics owes much to E. O. Wilson's 1975 book, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other approaches to the evolutionary puzzle of altruism also appeared in the next half-century: the ability to expect and receive reciprocal altruism, the benefits to an individual's reputation, cooperation in games where the cumulative payoff beats defection, and other models. (prospect.org)
  • Medical schools have been slower to integrate evolutionary approaches because of limitations on what can be added to existing medical curricula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis of effective evolutionary time differs from these earlier approaches as follows. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this characteristic is bounded by a technological or physical boundary, the presented evolutionary model predicts an asymptotic approach to this limit. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we propose a complementary approach to discover genes and mechanisms that might contribute to human disorders: the analysis of evolutionary mutant models in which adaptive phenotypes mimic maladaptive human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Hu X.., Greenwood G., D'Ambrosio J.G. (1996) An evolutionary approach to hardware/software partitioning. (springer.com)
  • Our system follows an approach based on interactive evolutionary computation. (springer.com)
  • With the works of Cavalli Sforza and Feldman and Boyd and Richerson, evolutionary archaeology become a more utilized approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary Phonology is an approach to phonology and historical linguistics, based on the idea that recurrent synchronic sound patterns, if not inherited from the mother tongue, are the result of recurrent sound changes, while rare patterns are the product of rare changes or a combination of independent changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This differs from the more traditional approach of evolutionary taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between the statement "B is part of A" (phylogenetic approach) and "B has evolved from A" (evolutionary approach) is, however, one of semantics rather than of phylogeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1974 Popper, Karl R. Objective Knowledge, An Evolutionary Approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolutionary approach has driven important advances in our understanding of cancer, autoimmune disease, and anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary developmental psychopathology is an approach to the understanding of psychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the development of the new anti-Aristotelian approach to modern science: as the Enlightenment progressed, evolutionary cosmology and the mechanical philosophy spread from the physical sciences to natural history. (wikipedia.org)
  • An element of the discussion that has been largely missing is the implication of mortality change for evolutionary theories of aging and, more generally, for biological understanding of plasticity of the mortality profile. (pnas.org)
  • The social and political implications of early cultural evolutionary thinking, such as eugenics and other atrocities, understandably promoted a reaction, and the social sciences turned towards a thoroughly anti-biological stance: The Standard Social Science Model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary dynamics is the study of the mathematical principles according to which biological organisms as well as cultural ideas evolve and evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-descendant relationship (serial descent), and degree of evolutionary change. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years to follow, the term evolutionary mismatch has become widely used to describe biological maladaptations in a wide range of disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term evolutionary trap has retained several definitions associated with different biological disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • He argues instead that from a biological viewpoint the evolutionary origins of language is best conceptualized as being the probable result of a convergence of many separate adaptations into a complex system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding how and why language subsystems differ in their evolutionary dynamics is a fundamental question for historical and comparative linguistics. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding how and why language systems differ in their evolutionary dynamics is a fundamental question for historical-comparative linguistics. (pnas.org)
  • As an illustrative example of the emerging evolutionary dynamics, we consider a public goods game with cooperators and defectors and add punishers and the option to abstain from the enterprise in further scenarios. (pnas.org)
  • Evolutionary game dynamics describes how successful strategies spread in a population ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although imitation dynamics are a common way to model evolutionary game dynamics, they do not include the possibility to explore the available strategies. (pnas.org)
  • Much of the research on evolutionary suicide has used the mathematical modeling technique adaptive dynamics, in which genetic changes are studied together with population dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary systems are characterized by "moving equilibria and the dynamics of coevolutionary interactions which can not be foreseen ex ante. (wikipedia.org)
  • High localization and source-sink biogeographic demographic dynamics may also increase the likelihood of evolutionary rescue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary dynamics: exploring the equations of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the International Conference on the Applications of Evolutionary Computation, EvoApplications 2014, held in Granada, Spain, in April 2014, colocated with the Evo* 2014 events EuroGP, EvoCOP, and EvoMUSART. (springer.com)
  • In his 1942 book, evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr described evolutionary traps as the phenomenon that occurs when a genetically uniform population suited for a single set of environmental conditions is susceptible to extinction from sudden environment changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leigh Van Valen was an evolutionary biologist that was notable for writing a multitude of scientific papers - roughly 300 over the course of his lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a linguist, rather than an evolutionary biologist, his theoretical emphasis was on the infinite capacity of speech and speaking: there are a fixed number of words, but there is an infinite combination of the words. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular systematics uses DNA sequence data for tracking evolutionary changes, thus paraphyly and sometimes phylogenetic polyphyly signal ancestor-descendant transformations at the taxon level, but otherwise molecular phylogenetics makes no provision for extinct paraphyly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Linnaean systematics, evolutionary grades are accepted in higher taxonomic ranks, though generally avoided at family level and below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of microbial systematics that was established in 1951. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptive and Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Computation. (springer.com)
  • Descriptive evolutionary ethicists have also debated whether various types of moral phenomena should be seen as adaptations which have evolved because of their direct adaptive benefits, or spin-offs that evolved as side-effects of adaptive behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term 'evolutionary landscape' is often used interchangeably with 'adaptive landscape' and 'fitness landscape', although some authors distinguish between these terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary policies for sustainable development: adaptive flexibility and risk minimising. (wikipedia.org)
  • Financial markets as nonlinear adaptive evolutionary systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary rescue may also be highly characterized by a U-shaped curve, in which the population declines sharply until it passes a stochastic threshold, at which the adaptive allele frequency rapidly increases, with the population rebounding at a slower rate as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible example of evolutionary rescue in nature is the selective response of redbellied black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) to cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, in which P. porphyriacus exposed to R. marina for long periods of time demonstrated rapid adaptive shifts in resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • While evolutionary views tend to regard most individual differences as the result of either random genetic noise (evolutionary byproducts) and/or idiosyncrasies (for example, peer groups, education, neighborhoods, and chance encounters) rather than products of natural selection, EDP asserts that natural selection can favor the emergence of individual differences via "adaptive developmental plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology unites scientists with various backgrounds (natural sciences and humanities) whose aim is to investigate the history of humankind from an interdisciplinary perspective with the help of comparative analyses of genes, cultures, cognitive abilities and social systems of past and present human populations as well as those of primates closely related to human beings. (mpg.de)
  • The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (German: Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie, shortened to MPI EVA) is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would be sequencing the Neanderthal genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dating carried out by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig revealed that the Jebel Irhoud site and its Homo sapiens fossils were far older than first thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is an example of evolutionary mismatch? (psychologytoday.com)
  • The genome size of these reputed living fossils has remained unchanged over at least 180 million years - a paramount example of evolutionary stasis,' the authors wrote in the paper. (livescience.com)
  • The stature of old, or original, institutional economics was further strengthened by the formation in 1988 of the European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy (EAEPE) is a pluralist forum of social scientists that brings together institutional and evolutionary economists broadly defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilson doesn't extrapolate from bugs to people, but his conclusions raise fascinating questions about the evolutionary aspects of non-reproducing humans. (wired.com)
  • Social Darwinism and evolutionary racism allowed "human zoos" to proliferate in the late 1800s, wherein a supposed evolutionary progression of humans - from apes, to Africans, to West Europeans - were placed in a line. (conservapedia.com)
  • The Red Queen hypothesis shows that the evolutionary arms race between pathogenic bacteria and humans is a constant battle for evolutionary advantages in outcompeting each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent times, humans have had a large, rapid, and trackable impact on our environment, thus creating scenarios where it is easier to observe evolutionary mismatch. (wikipedia.org)
  • These evolutionary adaptations model human diseases of decreased bone mineralization including osteopenia. (nih.gov)
  • This universality suggests that art is related to evolutionary adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with adaptations in general, psychological adaptations are said to be specialized for the environment in which an organism evolved, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness, or EEA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is psychological variation among individuals, the majority of our psychological mechanisms should be adaptations designed specifically to solve recurrent problems, many of which were social in nature, in our evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • It generated vigorous debate, and within a few years the National Science Foundation had developed a panel titled Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within behavioral and ecological sciences, evolutionary traps occur when rapid environmental change triggers organisms to make maladaptive behavioral decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • That choice affects nearly all of an individual's subsequent choices, so it may not be particularly surprising the type of evolutionary trap with the best empirical support is the ecological trap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proponents of the evolutionary rescue hypothesis argue that evolutionary rescue is a unique phenomenon, separate from two commonly studied escapes from ecological pressures, demographic and genetic rescues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, Saad ignores two of Begley's most important criticisms: the example of rape as having been advantageous in the EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptedness) and the rapidity with which genetic changes can occur in human populations. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Since affordances are relative, and threats are often functionally distinct (e.g., threats of violence, disease, non-cooperation, threats to the functional efficiency of groups), these different types of threats likely provided distinct evolutionary pressures and activate different emotions, which in turn motivate different behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invited participants came from the evolutionary context. (springer.com)
  • The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. (pnas.org)
  • understanding the evolutionary context for variation in human mortality patterns requires an evolutionarily relevant comparative baseline. (pnas.org)
  • Using this baseline as the standard for comparison provides the necessary means of gauging the rate and timing of mortality improvement in a broad evolutionary context. (pnas.org)
  • Janzen, Martin and Barlow mainly discussed evolutionary anachronisms in the context of seed dispersal and passive defense strategies exhibited by plants that had evolved alongside disappeared megaherbivores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, Gonzalo Munevar has argued that neuroscience in an evolutionary context can give a proper explanation of the self. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary taxonomy differs from strict pre-Darwinian Linnaean taxonomy (producing orderly lists only), in that it builds evolutionary trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darwinian medicine and evolutionary epidemiology are complementary in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas evolutionary epidemiology focuses on the spread of diseases, Darwinian medicine focuses more on the individual patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there is empirical evidence for evolutionary rescue, it is important to note that missing temporal, demographic or allelic data makes the majority of these examples suggestive of evolutionary rescue at best. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary rescue is a theoretical situation in which a population recovers from environmental pressure through advantageous genetic change rather than increased gene flow, migration, dispersal or other demographic rescue techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Association for Evolutionary Economics (AFEE) is an international organization of heterodox economists working in the institutionalist and evolutionary traditions of Thorstein Veblen, John R. Commons and Wesley Mitchell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wardman Group renamed itself the Association for Evolutionary Economics (AFEE) in 1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, in collaboration with the Association for Evolutionary Economics (AFEE), EAEPE ran a special competition to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Thorstein Veblen's birthday. (wikipedia.org)
  • Either pathway could lead to antibiotic resistance, which may be a form of evolutionary rescue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely accepted form of evolutionary ethics is descriptive evolutionary ethics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been renewed interest in treating economic systems as evolutionary systems in the developing field of Complexity economics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary linguistics as a field is rapidly emerging as a result of developments in neighboring disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Veblen-Commons Award is given annually in recognition of the contributions made by an outstanding scholar in the field of evolutionary institutional economics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other important conferences in the field are IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), Parallel Problem Solving from Nature (PPSN) and EvoStar (a group name for four co-located conferences, EuroGP, EvoCOP, EvoMUSART, and EvoApplications). (wikipedia.org)
  • Organizing organisms into grades rather than strict clades can also be very useful to understand the evolutionary sequence behind major diversification of both animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary economics analyses the unleashing of a process of technological and institutional innovation by generating and testing a diversity of ideas which discover and accumulate more survival value for the costs incurred than competing alternatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined, these analyses allow us to sketch out the typical evolutionary trajectories of cancer, and map them in real time relative to the point of diagnosis. (nature.com)
  • The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. (psu.edu)
  • This tradition of evolutionary analyses of plant architectures was further advanced by Katherine Esau, best known for her book The Plant Anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many aspects of such an evolutionary process are stochastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most vulnerable part of the evolutionary rescue process, theoretically, should be the time point during which the population is beyond the stochastic threshold, which exposes the population to random outcomes not determined by genetic or evolutionary mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has created a mismatch between the modern diet and lifestyle (which has emerged in evolutionary terms very recently), and the diet and lifestyle to which the human body has slowly adapted to over thousands of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human evolutionary genetics and changes in the human genome over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The excesses of Wing Bowl may have their roots in the most basic human evolutionary impulses. (philly.com)
  • The argument over the evolutionary "appropriateness" of rape Begley outlines is important because many self-proclaimed EP realists argue that human nature leads us to wage war on our neighbors, deceive our spouses, and abuse our stepchildren. (psychologytoday.com)
  • To better understand the evolutionary significance of the great changes in human mortality profiles and to more accurately describe the rate and magnitude of mortality reduction, we make a number of basic comparisons between the evolved human mortality profile and those of human populations from the present and recent historical contexts. (pnas.org)
  • His books, Evolutionary Parenting and The Common Vision: Parenting and Educating for Wholeness , describe human potential as this can be nurtured by parents and educators. (kboo.fm)
  • Evolutionary mutant models for human disease. (nih.gov)
  • If the type and mode of action of mutations favored by natural selection in wild populations are similar to those that contribute to human diseases, then studies in evolutionary mutant models have the potential to identify novel genetic factors and gene-by-environment interactions that affect human health and underlie human disease. (nih.gov)
  • Evolutionary mutant models have the potential to reveal novel insight into the genetic basis of an array of different types of human diseases, from simple to complex. (nih.gov)
  • Evolutionary mutants can also model complex human diseases including osteopenia in icefish. (nih.gov)
  • Interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) or aesthetic selection is a general term for methods of evolutionary computation that use human evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from another human genome, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human-based selection strategy is a simplest human-based evolutionary computation procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychoactive drugs induce emotions that in human evolutionary history signaled increases in fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Modern Reader in Institutional and Evolutionary Economics: Key Concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • EAEPE has regularly published a series of conference volumes, several more focused volumes on specific topics as well as readers on institutional and evolutionary economics (see selected list below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis that chaperones can act as evolutionary capacitors is closely associated with the heat shock protein Hsp90. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings are the basis of the hypothesis of effective evolutionary time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis also incorporates a time factor: habitats with a long undisturbed evolutionary history will have greater diversity than habitats exposed to disturbances in evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis of effective evolutionary time offers a causal explanation of diversity gradients, although it is recognized that many other factors can also contribute to and modulate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book contains a selection of papers presented at a workshop on evolutionary computing sponsored by the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour, AISB, at the University of Sussex in Brighton, UK, in April 1996. (springer.com)
  • Evolutionary acquisition of neural topologies (EANT/EANT2) is an evolutionary reinforcement learning method that evolves both the topology and weights of artificial neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary reinforcement learning of artificial neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001. Necessary and sufficient conditions for evolutionary suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary linguistics is a subfield of psycholinguistics that studies the psychosocial and cultural factors involved in the origin of language and the development of linguistic universals. (wikipedia.org)