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  • yeast
  • From yeast to humans, progression through the cell cycle is associated with the phase-specific transcription of defined sets of genes ( McKinney and Heintz, 1991 ). (plantcell.org)
  • During the G1-to-S transition, a set of specific genes are induced, including G1 cyclin genes and several genes involved in DNA synthesis in yeast ( Koch and Nasmyth, 1994 ), animal ( Müller, 1995 ), and plant cells ( Ito, 1998 ). (plantcell.org)
  • This process is better understood in yeast and animals cells. (biologists.org)
  • In the yeast spindle pole body and the centrosome in animal cells,γ -tubulin small complexes and γ-tubulin ring complexes, respectively, nucleate all microtubules. (biologists.org)
  • Localization The F-box protein is a big superfamily in Eukaryotic cells like yeast, plant, human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Main article: Polarity establishment in yeast Generation of cellular polarity is critically important for the function of practically every cell type and underlies processes like cell division, differentiation, cell migration, cell-cell signalling and fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Her laboratory also investigates ancestral components of land plants, evolutionary biology and distributions of uncultured taxa and interactions between viruses and phytoplankton host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The streptophyte algae (i.e. the streptophyte clade minus the land plants) are less diverse (with around 122 genera) and adapted to fresh water very early in their evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolutionary history of plants is not yet completely settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. (wikipedia.org)
  • vegetative
  • PCD in development of plant vegetative tissue. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • The virus has been shown to primarily infect vegetative tissue and not reproductive tissue, so it is not transmitted from parent plants through their seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • During the cell cycle, the level of NtmybB mRNA did not change significantly, whereas the levels of NtmybA1 and A2 mRNAs fluctuated and peaked at M-phase, when B-type cyclin genes were maximally induced. (plantcell.org)
  • We developed a parameterized Markov process to identify what neighbour context-dependent mutations best accounted for patterns of dinucleotide frequency biases in genomic and cytoplasmically expressed mRNA sequences of different vertebrates, other eukaryotic groups and RNA viruses that infect them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis
  • FBL17 transcripts accumulate in both proliferating and postmitotic cell types of Arabidopsis plants. (plantcell.org)
  • In the present report, we have identified and characterized SPC98 orthologues in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and Arabidopsis thaliana , indicating that higher plants possess γ-tubulin complex components, although no centrosome-like organelle is present. (biologists.org)
  • Pattern formation and cell differentiation: trichomes in Arabidopsis as a genetic model system. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • encode
  • Taking advantage of the situation that plants encode highly redundant cyclin A genes, we were able to perform functional dissection of CYCA2;3 using null mutant alleles. (plantcell.org)
  • molecules
  • Cells are born after the division of a progenitor cell, then they increase their size about twice by the synthesis of many cells structures and molecules, including DNA, and finally they divide to give rise to two new cells. (uvigo.es)
  • The invading C. neoformans cells may be killed by the release of oxidative and nitrosative molecules by these macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell walls also limit the entry of large molecules that may be toxic to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The pH is an important factor governing the transport of molecules through cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Plant B-type cyclin genes are expressed specifically in late G2- and M-phases during the cell cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • Later in the cell cycle, during G2- and M-phases, another set of genes is expressed, among which B-type cyclin genes are the best characterized. (plantcell.org)
  • We propose that the diurnal co-regulation of genes involved in photoprotection, defence against oxidative stress and DNA repair might be an efficient mechanism, which protects cells against photo-damage thereby, contributing to the ability of O. tauri to grow under a wide range of light intensities. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • viruses
  • It is thus possible that viruses were involved in the creation of Earth's first cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses may initially have adopted DNA as a way to resist RNA-degrading enzymes in the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • For example, many cells never divide, such as neurons, and some other special cells are born from the fusion of two cells, such as zygotes (fusion of two gametes), or by the fusion of many cells, such as skeletal striated muscle cells during development. (uvigo.es)
  • 2 Why do cells divide? (sciencedocbox.com)
  • However, once the cell starts to divide, the cilium is replaced again by the centrosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • gametes
  • Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells are called gametes, and contain only half the genetic material of the parent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthetic
  • However, a retrograde signal mediating light-responsive gene expression may have been established alongside gene transfer, because essential light sensing and regulatory systems were originally incorporated into plant cells by the photosynthetic endosymbiont. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is good evidence that some of these algal groups arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors, with the result that the brown algae, for example, are no longer classified within the plant kingdom as it is defined here. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastid
  • Most of the sampled algae house a single plastid per cell and basal-branching relatives of polyplastidic lineages are all monoplastidic, as are some non-vascular plants during certain stages of their life cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Unlike
  • Unlike γ-tubulin, plant Spc98p is not detected along MTs, suggesting that plant γ-tubulin may have a role that is independent of MT nucleation at these sites. (biologists.org)
  • bacterial
  • and another prokaryotic (bacterial) cell that, by endocytosis, became the modern mitochondrion or chloroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crucially, each cell of a plant or animal is organised very differently from a bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is a bacterial process for transferring DNA from one cell to another, and is apparently an adaptation for repairing DNA damage in the recipient cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • There are molecular systems in the cell that control the advance from one phase to the next during the cell cycle. (uvigo.es)
  • The molecular mechanisms responsible for microtubule (MT) nucleation have not yet been identified in higher plants. (biologists.org)
  • Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • However, once in the adult stage, the size of many cell populations remains constant, and there is a decrease or stop of the proliferation rate. (uvigo.es)
  • animal
  • Atlas of plant and animal histology. (uvigo.es)
  • During embryonic development and juvenile periods, most of the cell types contribute to the animal body growth. (uvigo.es)
  • Epithelial cells adhere to one another through tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions, forming sheets of cells that line the surface of the animal body and internal cavities (e.g., digestive tract and circulatory system). (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asexual
  • Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, and then divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • There are about 300-315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260-290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below). (wikipedia.org)