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  • pancreatic
  • Describing the diverse molecular mechanisms (particularly immunological) involved in the death of the pancreatic beta cell in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • catalytic
  • In addition to a catalytic domain with sequence and structural features conserved among eIF-2α kinases, PEK contains a distinctive amino-terminal region 550 residues in length. (asm.org)
  • Insulin
  • These constitute 70-80% of the total mass of the islet [ 2 ] and are responsible for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, a key hormone in the regulation of human metabolism [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 21536732 ). In tissues responsive to insulin, controls fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis by exerting translational control of adipogenic transcription factors such as CEBPB, CEBPD and ATF4 that have G/C rich or uORF in their 5'UTR. (uniprot.org)
  • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes each have similarities in that both types of diabetes involve insulin from the pancreas not working properly as it should. (amazonaws.com)
  • Understanding the Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) Surgery on Type 2 Diabetes MellitusRaymond G. Why there is this discordant finding between HOMA-IR measures and insulin clamp studies is unclear. (amazonaws.com)
  • subunits
  • It shows the relocation of subunits eIF3i and eIF3g to the 40S intersubunit face on the GTPase binding site, at a late stage in initiation. (rcsb.org)
  • diabetes
  • The proband was born to first cousin Saudi parents and died at 2 years from the sequelae of poorly controlled diabetes. (cags.org.ae)
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is rising at an alarming rate. (springer.com)
  • Many people with type 2 diabetes start out by diet and exercise, trying to lower their weight to improve their sugars before trying any oral anti-diabetic medications. (amazonaws.com)
  • Indeed, several reports showed that ER stress is linked to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes ( 4 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mammals
  • Among the four eIF-2α kinases present in mammals, PERK is most highly expressed in the pancreas, suggesting that it may be responsible for the high eIF-2α[P] levels found therein. (asm.org)
  • Type
  • This can be classified according to its etiology and pathology in type 1 DM (DM1) and type 2 DM (DM2) [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Central to the host innate antiviral responses is production of type I IFN, which is regulated by members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors ( 1 - 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • receptor
  • Among them, the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and their infiltration in the pancreas, followed by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), which united with its membrane receptor on the PBC, activate intracellular signaling pathways that end in the induction of proapoptotic mechanisms and, in some cases, cell death through necroptosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)