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  • Inhibition
  • Results indicate that inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway in HepG2 cells, which are refractory to the pro-apoptotic effects of TGF-ß, sensitizes them to cell death through a mitochondrial-dependent mechanism, coincident with increased levels of BIM and BMF, decreased levels of BCL-XL and MCL1, and BAX/BAK activation. (sebbm.es)
  • In conclusion, the mere activation of JNK suffices to induce insulin resistance in pancreatic β-cells by inhibition of insulin signaling in these cells, but it is not sufficient to elicit β-cell death. (sebbm.es)
  • Inhibition of glomus cell transmitter release or their selective destruction markedly diminishes CB cell growth during hypoxia, showing that CB NSCs are under the direct ''synap- tic'' control of the mature O2-sensitive cells. (sebbm.es)
  • Here, we discuss the mechanistic details of transcription-replication conflicts including putative scenarios for R-loop-induced replication inhibition to understand how transcription-replication conflicts transition from S phase into various aberrant DNA structures in mitosis. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies
  • In particular, the invention relates to polypeptides that are homologous to other sweet receptors, nucleic acids encoding the polypeptides, vectors and host cells comprising the nucleic acids and antibodies that specifically bind to the polypeptides. (google.com)
  • genomic
  • These recent findings indicate a direct connection between cohesion and the replication-repair machinery, supporting the notion that cohesion participates in maintaining genomic integrity and ensuring segregation of two identical copies of the genetic material into daughter cells. (asm.org)
  • Methylation of lysine residues within histones is tightly regulated by methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) to preserve cell fate and genomic stability. (epigentek.com)
  • Furthermore, these boundaries separate regions of similarly timed replication origins connecting the long-known effect of genomic context on replication timing to genome architecture. (pnas.org)
  • Strategies of transcriptional genomic organization of different DNA virus families. (els.net)
  • anaphase
  • It is generally accepted that during DNA replication, sister chromatids are aligned and held together by a tight chromosomal connection that is conserved throughout the G 2 phase, until the metaphase/anaphase transition. (asm.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, glomus cells not only acutely activate the respira- tory center but also induce NSC-dependent CB hypertrophy necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxemia. (sebbm.es)
  • and third, origins are activated by cyclin dependent and Cdc7 kinases thus initiating bi-directional replication ( Dutta and Bell, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Thus, specific architecture may create functional microenvironments to coordinate transcriptional activity. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, loss of competence to replicate DNA during S phase and subsequent restoration in M ensures that the genome is replicated only once in a given cell cycle. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, replication in Plasmodium appears to be an excellent drug target: its mechanisms and regulators are distinct from those of the host organisms, the scale of reproductive output is directly crucial to pathogenicity, and it offers the possibility of interfering with the transmissibility of the parasite. (springer.com)
  • induces
  • Mucosal immunization with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccines induces both antibody and T cell responses but does not protect against rectal FIV challenge", Vaccine, 2000, vol. 18, pp. 3254-3265. (patentgenius.com)
  • It induces retinal ganglion cell death, a process also occurring in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. (sebbm.es)
  • yeast
  • Herein, we describe the existence of topologically associating domains in budding yeast and show that these domains regulate replication timing so that origins within a domain fire synchronously. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, herein we analyze Hi-C data for budding yeast and identify 200-kb scale TADs, whose boundaries are enriched for transcriptional activity. (pnas.org)
  • MCMs are essential DNA replication factors that are conserved from archaebacteria to yeast and human. (rupress.org)
  • genetic
  • Genetic downregulation of autophagy using knockout mice for Atg4B (another regulator of autophagy) or with specific deletion of Atg5 in retinal ganglion cells, using the Atg5flox/flox mice reduces cell survival after ONT, whereas pharmacological induction of autophagy in vivo increases the number of surviving cells. (sebbm.es)
  • Why Haven't Cancer Cells Undergone Genetic Meltdowns? (smbe.org)
  • The two chromatids are then pulled apart and segregated into different daughter cells, ensuring that each new cell has identical genetic information. (encyclopedia.com)
  • progression
  • To achieve this fidelity, cells have evolved surveillance mechanisms to coordinate repair of natural, unavoidable errors with cell cycle progression ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • On sensing DNA damage or stalled replication forks, DNA damage checkpoints are activated to arrest cell cycle progression and repair damaged DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • organisms
  • Here, we collate what is known about the various cell cycle events and their regulators throughout the Plasmodium life-cycle, highlighting the differences between Plasmodium , model organisms and other apicomplexan parasites and identifying areas where further study is required. (springer.com)
  • novel
  • Cdt1 is a novel replication factor conserved throughout evolution. (biologists.org)
  • This review focusses on the unusual cell cycles of Plasmodium , which may present a rich source of novel drug targets as well as a topic of fundamental biological interest. (springer.com)
  • whereas
  • Here, we report that the extent of H4 acetylation within euchromatin and heterochromatic domains is linked with DNA replication rather than with transcriptional activity, whereas H3 acetylation remains fairly constant throughout the cell cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • viral
  • It is of note that eukaryotic cells also utilize SIMs for anti-viral response (e.g. (eu.org)
  • In this case, it is also important that intercellular movement of viral particles is achieved through the plasmodesmata, unique structures that allow communication between the cytoplasm of neighbouring plant cells. (els.net)
  • spatial
  • Vibrio cholerae biofilms were observed to have three distinct levels of spatial organization: cells, clusters of cells, and collections of clusters. (sciencemag.org)
  • mechanisms
  • We have explored the regulatory mechanisms that constitute age-associated barriers, through derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from individuals with premature or physiological ageing. (sebbm.es)
  • The brain microenvironment imposes a particularly intense selective pressure on metastasis-initiating cells, but successful metastases bypass this control through mechanisms that are poorly understood. (sebbm.es)
  • The mechanisms by which cells interact with circulating lipophorins and acquire their lipidic cargo are poorly understood. (sebbm.es)
  • identical
  • The result is the production of two identical cells, the basis of clonal cell growth. (asm.org)
  • Epigenetic factors include DNA methylations, histone modifications, and microRNAs, and they can help to explain how cells with identical DNA can differentiate into different cell types with different phenotypes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • undergo
  • In germinal centres (GC) mature B cells undergo intense proliferation and immunoglobulin gene modification before they differentiate into memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells (PC). (sebbm.es)
  • tumor
  • Expression of Ocil/Clr-b on mouse tumor cell lines inhibits NK cell-mediated killing. (jove.com)
  • Interestingly, miR-16 is downregulated in mammospheres originated from mammary tumor stem cells. (aacrjournals.org)