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  • genes
  • These are the genes that were no longer required in their new host cell environment. (bartleby.com)
  • Unfortunately, with the sequences of hundreds of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic genomes has come the realization that the number of universally distributed genes suitable for global phylogenetic analysis is frustratingly small ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lateral (or horizontal) gene transfer has shown itself to be a pervasive force in the evolution of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, and even if a "core" set of genes can be identified (and there is much debate on this issue), how confident are we that the phylogenetic signal in these genes reflects the vertical history of cells? (pnas.org)
  • In addition, gene organization is different, as eukaryotic genes are interrupted by intronic sequences. (springer.com)
  • Recently, our research group has been able to demonstrate that eukaryotic cells consist of a complex community of genes with prokaryotic ancestry and that eukaryote genomes are chimaeric. (templeton.org)
  • Lee, M. and Nurse, P. (1988) 'Cell cycle control genes in fission yeast and mammalian cells', Trends Genet. (springer.com)
  • The chromosomes and genes contained within DNA are replicated during the S phase of the interphase cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • bacteria
  • Others posit that at its deepest level life is not a dichotomy but a trichotomy comprised of cells belonging to the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, each monophyletic and sufficiently distinct from one another to warrant equal status ( , 5 , , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • From the unicellular bacteria to multicellular animals, the cell is one of the basic organizational principles of biology . (thoughtco.com)
  • Synthesis
  • Trichostatin A (TSA), isolated as a potent inducer of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells, caused reversible arrest of rat 3Y1 fibroblast proliferation in G1 and G2 phases without any inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. (springer.com)
  • In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • pathogenic
  • Consequently, in both the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and model organism S. cerevisiae mutations in the gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (ERG3) allow the cell to avoid synthesizing the toxic sterol products and have been shown to confer azole resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The eukaryotic ribosome, however, consists of five types of rRNA and around 80 types of protein. (wisegeek.com)
  • Progesterone inhibits apoptosis in immortalized granulosa cells, and this activity requires PGRMC1 and its binding partner, PAIR-BP1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Internal membranes are a recurring difference between the two cell types. (wisegeek.com)
  • This patient was also found to have low levels of blood cholesterol and high levels of lathosterol in cell membranes when compared to those of healthy control subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rod cells the opsin molecules are embedded in the membranes of the disks which are entirely inside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast cells
  • Yeast cells lacking the DAP1 gene are sensitive to DNA damage, and heme-binding is essential for damage resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity, RT-PCR is used in a wide range of applications from experiments as simple as quantification of yeast cells in wine to more complex uses as diagnostic tools for detecting infectious agents such as the avian flu virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The invading C. neoformans cells may be killed by the release of oxidative and nitrosative molecules by these macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Gelfant, S (1977) 'A new concept of tissue and tumor cell proliferation', Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • In the present paper, the effect of six classical CaM interactors (W5, W7, W12, W13, bifonazole and calmidazolium) was studied on Ca2+-signalling in tumor initiating cells isolated from human glioblastoma (TG1) and tobacco cells (BY-2) using the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive Indo-1 dye and aequorin, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, the distinct Ca2+-fingerprints in tobacco and human tumor initiating glioblastoma cells induced by a given CaM interactor highlight the specificity of the Ca2+-signalosome in eukaryotic cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cancer
  • PGRMC1 is over-expressed in breast tumors and in cancer cell lines from the colon, thyroid, ovary, lung, and cervix. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGRMC1 also promotes survival in human cancer cells after treatment with chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes cell
  • Calcium (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger which promotes cell responses through transient changes in intracellular concentrations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • mitosis
  • During mitosis, the sister chromatids are separated and distributed to two daughter cells. (reference.com)
  • According to Hartnell College, the cell cycle is divided into two primary phases, interphase and mitosis. (reference.com)
  • During mitosis, the cell divides into two daughter cells, with each cell containing one of the sister chromatids. (reference.com)
  • chitin
  • The addition of lactophenol blue with this test turns the chitin in the cell wall blue but leaves the budding conidia and globular conidiophores with their characteristic brown colouring. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyphal
  • It has been shown that cytoplasmic effectors can move through a few layers of plant cells, probably a way to prepare them for hyphal invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The EF-1 alpha promoter in these systems is derived from the human EEF1A1 gene that expresses the alpha subunit of eukaryotic elongation factor 1. (clontech.com)
  • restriction
  • A restriction to either eukaryotic or procaryotic cells seems not to be present. (patentlygerman.com)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like carotenoids and mycosporines represent passive physiological adaptations which enable black fungi to be highly resistant against environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial
  • Mitochondrial networks in wild-type cells retained their mtDNA nucleoids (DAPI staining, not shown) and these cells grew well on medium containing the nonfermentable carbon source glycerol at both 25° and 37°C (Fig. 2 A, WT). (nih.gov)
  • 1998). As reported previously, this mtDNA loss was prevented when mitochondrial fission and fragmentation were blocked by introducing a dnm1Δ mutation into fzo1-1 (Fig. 2 A, dnm1Δ fzo1-1) or fzo1Δ cells (Bleazard et al. (nih.gov)
  • cyclin
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • flagellar
  • They have two flagella, only one of which emerges from the flagellar pocket (reservoir) in the anterior of the cell, and can move by swimming, or by so-called "euglenoid" movement across surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfolobus cells are irregularly shaped and flagellar. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Therefore, ConA-induced hepatitis is an ideal model to investigate the mechanisms and treatments of T-cell-dependent hepatotoxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • Antagonizes MYC transcriptional activity by competing for MAX and suppresses MYC dependent cell transformation. (uniprot.org)
  • viral
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • Such levels of control are not possible when using previous versions of the Tet-On system for this cell line. (clontech.com)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functions
  • With the implicit understanding that monocytes and granulocytes represent distinct cell lineages, this chapter reviews laboratory procedures which can be utilized to assess their functions and phenotypes. (asmscience.org)
  • Although
  • Although sequenced genome data are practically biased toward small genomes, which may compromise the accuracy of the empirically derived correlation, and the ultimate proof of the correlation remains to be obtained by sequencing some of the largest eukaryotic genomes, current data do not seem to rule out a correlation. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Right) For the same tube, the same populations were visualized on the basis of right-angle light scatter ( y axis) versus the level of cell surface CD33-PE expression ( x axis). (asmscience.org)
  • Flexible
  • They have a highly flexible cell surface, allowing them to change shape from thin cells up to 100 µm long to spheres of approximately 20 µm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle called interphase that takes place before cell division in mitosis (M phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a process long-thought to be mediated by chemotaxis but now considered to be a function of a form of contact-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle
  • The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fruiting process is thought to benefit myxobacteria by ensuring that cell growth is resumed with a group (swarm) of myxobacteria, rather than as isolated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Myxobacteria produce a number of biomedically and industrially useful chemicals, such as antibiotics, and export those chemicals outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence
  • Presence of 1,8-dihydroxynaphtalene melanin in the cell wall confers to the microfungi their characteristic olivaceous to dark brown/black colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • move
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)