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  • Genes
  • In trypanosomatids, little is known about the genes that regulate cyclin B-cdc2 complexes at the G2/M transition of their cell cycle. (jove.com)
  • While transcription of prokaryotic protein-coding genes creates messenger RNA (mRNA) that is ready for translation into protein, transcription of eukaryotic genes leaves a primary transcript of RNA (pre-mRNA), which first has to undergo a series of modifications to become a mature mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • clb2 Δ cells are not sensitive to HU, but the strong synergistic effect of clb2 Δ with most genes tested indicates, unexpectedly, that CLB2 has an important role in DNA replication, in the stability and restart of stalled forks, and in pathways dependent on and independent of homologous recombination. (g3journal.org)
  • One suggested mechanism is that TSA promotes the expression of apoptosis-related genes, leading to cancerous cells surviving at lower rates, thus slowing the progression of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • Even more, these structures can be induced in culture cells by overexpression of specific centrosomal proteins, such as CNap-1 or Nlp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • A visionary in the field of cell biology, this is the story of Dr. Nurse's scientific journey. (springer.com)
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, the centrosome (Latin centrum 'center' + Greek sōma 'body') is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current Opinion in Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marc W. Kirschner (born February 28, 1945) is an American cell biologist and biochemist and the founding chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research involves problems in cell and developmental biology, such as the dynamics and function of the cytoskeleton, the regulation of the cell cycle, and the process of signaling in embryos, as well as the evolution of the vertebrate body plan, and applying mathematical approaches to biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1993, he moved to Harvard Medical School, where he served as the chair of the new Department of Cell Biology for a decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipid bilayer is a critical component of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centrosomes are associated with the nuclear membrane during the prophase stage of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein translocation: As a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Randy Schekman at the University of California, Berkeley, Deshaies discovered Sec61, which comprises the heart of the translocon that mediates insertion of secretory and membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum of all eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The possibility of DNA replication and the cell cycle as a drug target is also explored. (springer.com)
  • Each replicative stage of the life-cycle, together with the approximate fold-replication, is highlighted in purple. (springer.com)
  • Control of capsulation during the cell cycle could serve as a simple means to prevent steric hindrance of flagellar motility or to ensure that phage-mediated genetic exchange happens before the onset of DNA replication. (elifesciences.org)
  • The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication, in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ensures that no replication origin fires twice in the same cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Origins of replication alternate between these two distinct states during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cdc7 kinase is involved in regulation of the cell cycle at the point of chromosomal DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In replicating cells, such as cells lining the colon, errors occur upon replication of past damages in the template strand of DNA or during repair of DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • Tissues - A collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • While endoreplication is often limited to specific cell types in animals, it is considerably more widespread in plants, such that polyploidy can be detected in the majority of plant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Because of the ease with which proteins can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated, this type of modification is a flexible mechanism for cells to respond to external signals and environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Based on the wide array of cell types in which endoreplication occurs, a variety of hypotheses have been generated to explain the functional importance of this phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • These functions, usually performed at lower concentrations, are different from those leading to cell death, and they are realized through different sets of molecular targets in the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulates
  • The phosphoinositol-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin-p70S6 kinase (PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K) pathway regulates cell growth and cell differentiation in response to nutrients, growth factors, and cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • homolog
  • In this study, we show that the capsule of the synchronizable model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is cell cycle regulated and we unearth a bacterial transglutaminase homolog, HvyA, as restriction factor that prevents capsulation in G1-phase cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • human
  • This study delineates the antiproliferative activities and in vivo efficacy of YC-1 [3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3 Animal and human studies have indicated that neointimal cells may not only originate from the vascular media or adventitia, but also from bone marrow- and nonmarrow-derived progenitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are at least several hundred distinct cell types in the adult human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • It is over 100 years since the life-cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium was discovered, yet its intricacies remain incompletely understood - a knowledge gap that may prove crucial for our efforts to control the disease. (springer.com)
  • differentiation
  • When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it undergoes cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cell types the centrosome is replaced by a cilium during cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies at UC San Francisco of the frog embryo as a model system of cell development, Kirschner identified the first inducer of embryonic differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), an early finding in the field of signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of endoreplication characterized in arthropod, mammalian, and plant species suggest that it is a universal developmental mechanism responsible for the differentiation and morphogenesis of cell types that fulfill an array of biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However it remains to be determined whether endoreplication and polypoidy contribute to cell differentiation or vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Finally, Cdc25A and B phosphatases have been shown to possess an important oncogenic potential and to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers and cancer cell lines. (creativebiomart.net)
  • phase
  • Using parasites with a synchronized cell cycle, we demonstrated that TbWee1 is linked to the G2/M phase. (jove.com)
  • revealed that capsule cannot form during the first phase of the cell cycle. (elifesciences.org)
  • discovered that an enzyme called HvyA, which is only produced during the first phase of the cell cycle, prevents the capsule from forming. (elifesciences.org)
  • s findings suggest that by only exchanging genetic material during the first phase of the cell cycle, bacteria ensure that any useful DNA is taken up and copied along with their own DNA later in the cell cycle. (elifesciences.org)
  • The centrosome replicates during the S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • In endoreplication cells skip M phase completely, resulting in a mononucleated polyploid cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During S phase the cell is more vulnerable to DNA damage than any other part of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • markedly
  • The association of p21 CIP1/WAP1 with CDK2 was markedly increased in cells responsive to YC-1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 7 Pharmacological rapamycin inhibition of mTOR markedly reduces transplant vasculopathy progression in recipients of cardiac 8,9 and renal transplants. (ahajournals.org)