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  • membranes
  • In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion , ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall , the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx , and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of synthetic biology, cell membranes can be artificially reassembled . (wikipedia.org)
  • By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to intracellular movement of components internally but not externally and that membranes weren't the equivalent of a cell wall to plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also inferred that cell membranes weren't vital components to all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until later studies with osmosis and permeability that cell membranes gained more recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1895, Ernest Overton proposed that cell membranes were made of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1925 it was determined by Fricke that the thickness of erythrocyte and yeast cell membranes ranged between 3.3 and 4 nm, a thickness compatible with a lipid monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Endocytosis occurs when a substance passes into a cell through the cell's membrane, and then the cell plasma fuses together to keep the material inside forming an intracellular vesicle. (reference.com)
  • ATP is the chemical energy "currency" of the cell that powers the cell's metabolic activities. (fsu.edu)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1979, G. W. Gould and G. J. Dring suggested that the eukaryotic cell's nucleus came from the ability of Gram-positive bacteria to form endospores. (wikipedia.org)
  • centrioles
  • However, the exact function of the centrioles in cell division isn't clear, because cells that have had the centrosome removed can still divide, and plant cells, which lack centrosomes, are capable of cell division. (quizover.com)
  • it has been proposed that cilia, flagella, centrioles, and microtubules may have originated from a symbiosis between a Spirochaete bacterium and an early eukaryotic cell, but this is not widely accepted among biologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • In all living cells, this decoding occurs on an organelle called the "ribosome. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • This process occurs in almost all plant species and is carried out in specialized organelles known as chloroplasts. (fsu.edu)
  • Chemical damage to DNA occurs naturally as well, and cells use DNA repair mechanisms to repair mismatches and breaks in DNA-nevertheless, the repair sometimes fails to return the DNA to its original sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • ingest
  • Many cells ingest food and other materials through a process of endocytosis, where the outer membrane invaginates and then pinches off to form a vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • The theory suggests that an anaerobic cell probably ingested an aerobic bacterium but failed to digest it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. (wikipedia.org)