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  • pore
  • Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. (frontiersin.org)
  • fused to synaptosome-associated prot
  • Amperometry in chromaffin cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) have been used to test the involvement of single amino acids in exocytotic function, overcoming some of the limitations of studies based on Botulinum neurotoxin cleavage, as this occurs at defined sites of the protein. (pnas.org)
  • mediate
  • Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. (physiology.org)
  • The extracellular regions of these transmembrane proteins mediate intercellular binding, while their cytoplasmic domains are linked to the actin- (adherens junction) or intermediate filament- (desmosome) based cytoskeletons. (stanford.edu)
  • These three proteins form a ternary complex (the SNARE complex) that is thought to mediate synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane. (asahq.org)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Expression of this signal in transfected cells disrupts the endogenous Golgi spectrin skeleton and blocks transport of α- and β-Na,K-ATPase and vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but does not disrupt the formation of Golgi stacks, the distribution of β-COP, or the transport and surface display of E-cadherin. (pnas.org)
  • Complex pathways of coated vesicle budding, transport, and fusion link the synthesis of membrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi transport and membrane assembly ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thiol isomerases facilitate protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, and several of these enzymes, including protein disulfide isomerase and ERp57, are mobilized to the surface of activated platelets, where they influence platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, and thrombus formation. (ovid.com)
  • We showed that MoHac1 regulates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response through a conserved unfolded protein response pathway, MoMetR controls amino acid metabolism to govern growth and differentiation, and MoBzip10 governs appressorium function and invasive hyphal growth. (jove.com)
  • complex
  • BKV agnoprotein and α-SNAP were found to partially co-localize in cells, and a complex consisting of agnoprotein and α-SNAP could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells ectopically expressing the proteins as well as from BKV-transfected cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • this is due, in part, to the structural constraints and the specificity of the protein interactions that govern the formation of the SNARE complex. (biochemj.org)
  • Thus, evidence is accumulating that tomosyn acts as a negative regulator for the formation of the SNARE complex, thereby inhibiting various vesicle fusion events. (rupress.org)
  • Tomosyn inhibits SNARE-dependent synaptic vesicle fusion via both N-terminal WD-40 repeat domain-mediated oligomerization of the SNARE complex and C-terminal VLD-based competitive inhibition of SNARE complex formation, resulting in potent inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (rupress.org)
  • Clara cell pathophysiology was evident from decreased cytoplasmic CCSP and SP-B protein levels, enlargement and disorganization of the Golgi complex, and formation of aberrant vesicular structures. (genetics.org)
  • In addition to a perinatal emphysematous lung phenotype, l7Rn6 4234SB Clara cells demonstrated decreased cytoplasmic CCSP and SP-B protein levels, significant enlargement and disorganization of the Golgi complex, as well as aberrant vesicular structures. (genetics.org)
  • Yet, based on an in vitro system that reconstitutes homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles, Ungermann and co‐workers (1998) deduced that the formation of the SNARE complex is only an intermediate step in the overall fusion reaction. (embopress.org)
  • A ) Model of the SNARE-SM fusion complex. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the SNARE complex, it is required for vesicle docking and fusion and regulates neurotransmitter release. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Sorting of the v-SNARE VAMP7 in Dictyostelium discoideum: a role for more than one Adaptor Protein (AP) complex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The structure reveals a highly twisted, parallel 4-helix bundle with leucine zipper-like layers at the center of the synaptic fusion complex. (tcdb.org)
  • Our observations establish that the SNARE core complex is sufficient to fuse two opposing membrane bilayers at a speed commensurate with most membrane fusion processes in cells. (nih.gov)
  • The nonstructural proteins form the replicon complex, localized on the cytoplasmic face of the ER. (hindawi.com)
  • degradation
  • The loss rate was determined by accelerated thermal degradation test, that is, incubate the protein at 37 centigrade for 48h, and no obvious degradation and precipitation were observed. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The classical view of ubiquitination is to target proteins for degradation by a multi-subunit, ATP-dependent protease termed the proteosome ( Pickart, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the abundances of eight amino acid (AA) biosynthesis or degradation associated proteins were markedly altered in five ?Morgs mutants, indicating one of the main collective roles for the MoRgs proteins is to influence AA metabolism. (jove.com)
  • We show that these proteins function in different steps of lysosome biology, regulating lysosome formation, lysosome fusion, and lysosome degradation. (g3journal.org)
  • lipid
  • Langer and Langosch ( 2011 ) have shown that lipid flippase activity is not essential for membrane fusion. (tcdb.org)
  • The LPC block reversibly prevented formation of the hemifusion intermediate that allows lipid, but not content, mixing.Transition from hemifusion to pore opening was sensitive to guanosine-5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate.Pore opening was rate limiting for the reaction. (nih.gov)
  • We have addressed the problem by characterizing the effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and other late-stage inhibitors on lipid mixing and pore opening during vacuole fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Because the proteins involved in both reactions are very different, LPCs most likely inhibit via a structural influence on the lipid bilayer rather than a deleterious effect on a fusion protein. (nih.gov)
  • compartments
  • The bidirectional traffic would tend to equalize the composition of the compartments, yet most proteins and some lipids are concentrated in one organelle and define its identity. (rupress.org)
  • mechanisms
  • However, whether these regulatory mechanisms are conserved throughout the Sx/SM protein families remains contentious as it is not clear whether the closed conformation represents a universal feature of Sxs. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In contrast to the enormous advances made regarding mechanisms of conventional protein secretion, mechanistic insights into the unconventional secretion of proteins are lacking. (rupress.org)
  • Despite the important contribution of cell-cell fusion in the development and physiology of eukaryotes, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Understanding the mechanisms then entails determining the assembling pathway of the involved proteins. (ens.fr)
  • To address the mechanisms by which MoRgs proteins function, we conducted a 2DE proteome study and identified 82 differentially expressed proteins by comparing five ?Morgs mutants with wild-type Guy11 strain. (jove.com)
  • Understanding regulated SNARE assembly is key to dissecting mechanisms and physiologies of various fusion processes and their associated diseases. (springer.com)
  • metabolism
  • We showed that MoRgs proteins have distinct roles in AA metabolism and nutrient responses from growth assays. (jove.com)
  • Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity. (jove.com)
  • granule
  • Kinetics of single granule fusions from cells expressing truncated forms showed slow onset and decay times when compared with control cells expressing full SNAP-25. (pnas.org)