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  • biofuels
  • Of the liquid biofuels (ethanol, methanol, fatty acid methyl ester), ethanol has long proven history and environmental advantages. (google.com)
  • To unravel how intricate waste biomass converts to biofuels, a Cornell professor studied the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum to decipher its metabolism. (phys.org)
  • The United States and most other countries seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to stave off global warming, and most gasoline sold in the U.S. contains ethanol because such plant-based biofuels are carbon-neutral. (phys.org)
  • Additionally, the most notable CBP successes have been in fuel ethanol production ( 2 ), whereas yields and titers remain low for desirable next-generation biofuels, such as higher molecular-weight alcohols and hydrocarbons. (pnas.org)
  • Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as ethanol and butanol, and biodiesel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Butanol is expected to play a major role in next-generation of biofuels, considering its characteristics of higher miscibility with gasoline and energy density than ethanol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Presently, the limited supply of bioresources for obtaining TAGs is a major obstacle for the production of lipid-based biofuels, in spite of the advantageous impacts that commercialization of TAG-based biofuels could provide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though all of these biofuels are derived from plant material, the source of raw material (biomass or seeds) and the production processes are different. (mdpi.com)
  • glucose
  • Gauss and co-workers, mentioned for instance the advantage that glucose does not need to be separated from the lignin fraction following a separate enzymatic hydrolysis step, thereby avoiding a potential loss of sugar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The natural habitat of this organism includes sugar-rich plant saps where the bacterium ferments sugar such as glucose or sucrose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wishartlab.com)
  • In addition, efficient ethanol production from sugar mixtures containing glucose and arabinose, which is crucial for application in industrial ethanol production, was achieved. (asm.org)
  • The Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) concentration increased by 52% compared with submerged culture at an initial glucose concentration of 65 g/L. The adsorption of ABE solvent on substrate and increased bacterial concentration alleviated the end product inhibition and partly explained this positive effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucose showed a great advantage over xylose, and higher glucose content was more conducive to biobutanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initial glucose present in pretreated spruce decreases the xylose utilization by yeast, due to competitive inhibition of sugar transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The free hexoses, initially present in the slurry, were in these experiments fermented before adding the enzymes, thereby lowering the glucose concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After pretreatment, hemicellulosic sugars, i.e. the pentoses (and also hexoses), are present as monomers while a large fraction of the glucose content is present as glucan fibres in the WIS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, its capacity to co-utilize glucose and xylose, the major sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bioconversion of xylose, which is the second most abundant sugar present after glucose in lignocellulosic biomass, is important for the development of cost effective bioprocesses to fuels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Xsp8 grown in batch-cultures derived from unbleached kraft hardwood pulp hydrolysate containing 70 g L -1 total sugars was able to completely and simultaneously utilize xylose and glucose present in the lignocellulosic feedstock, and yielded 11.0 g L -1 of TAGs as fatty acids, corresponding to 45.8% of the cell dry weight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We successfully engineered a R. opacus strain that is capable of completely utilizing high concentrations of xylose or mixed xylose/glucose simultaneously, and substantiated its suitability for TAG production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These microorganisms can typically use the 6-carbon sugars, one of the most common being glucose. (businessdocbox.com)
  • Therefore, biomass materials containing high levels of glucose or precursors to glucose are the easiest to convert to ethanol. (businessdocbox.com)
  • Theoretically, 100 grams of glucose will produce 51.4 g of ethanol and 48.8 g of carbon dioxide. (businessdocbox.com)
  • concentrations
  • At higher WIS contents, however, the concentrations of inhibitors and hexoses (inhibiting xylose uptake) will be higher. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, fully respiratory metabolism only takes place during the utilization of low sugar concentrations and slow rates of sugar consumption and growth, and plenitude of oxygen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In culture medium containing low yeast extract concentrations, xylose consumption and ethanol productivity were enhanced. (springeropen.com)
  • butanol
  • A method and apparatus for the production of ethanol and other fermentation products including citric acid, butanol and isopropanol from non-virgin biomass having deleterious materials therein is provided. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for the production of fermentation products from biomass, and more particularly to the production of citric acid and other fermentation products such as butanol, isopropanol, ethanol and related chemicals from waste materials. (google.com)
  • Biobutanol production is still not economically competitive because of some principal drawbacks including high cost in feedstock consumption, low butanol concentration in the fermentation broth caused by severe product inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work demonstrated an effective approach of improved butanol fermentation and its probable mechanisms of this positive effect, i.e. the adsorption of ABE solvent and the adhesion of bacteria on porous substrate accounted for the production improvement and the proportional variation of solvent constituents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nowadays biological butanol production has gained renewed interest due to the anxieties over global oil supply and its impact on social and economic development now. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, in order to select a suitable carrier for absorbent fermentation of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), various types of porous media were used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • soil bacterium
  • This company realized that, because R. planticola is an aggressive and abundant soil bacterium, it could be genetically modified to destroy crop residue and also create ethanol . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is recognized for over a century that Clostridium acetobutylicum [a soil bacterium] is a viable biofuel producer. (phys.org)
  • biofuel
  • Right now, though, this bacterium is not very efficient at processing complex wastes to biofuel production ," said Ludmilla Aristilde, assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering. (phys.org)
  • Using nonedible plant materials for biofuel production is important to sustainable energy options, and processing these materials involves metabolizing the plant's sugars. (phys.org)
  • These bacteria are important in the natural conversion of organic carbons in soils and they are exploited for industrial biofuel production," Aristilde said. (phys.org)
  • This study has enhanced our understanding of the physiology and metabolism of C. termitidis , and provides a foundation for future studies on metabolic engineering to optimize biofuel production from natural biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In CBP, enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and biofuel production are all carried out in a single step. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such studies are vital and can be exploited for process and genetic engineering for more effective industrial biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ethanol is the most important liquid biofuel of today. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacillus licheniformis MW3 as a GRAS and thermophilic strain is a promising microorganism for chemical and biofuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • acetate
  • Biomass pretreatment and saccharification provides access to simple sugars, but also produces inhibitors such as acetate and furfural. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this work, we report the development of facile metabolic engineering capabilities in A. succinogenes , enabling examination of SA flux determinants via knockout of the primary competing pathways-namely, acetate and formate production-and overexpression of the key enzymes in the reductive branch of the TCA cycle leading to SA. (asm.org)
  • pretreatment
  • 2007. Acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment of Lodgepole pine and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. (jmb.or.kr)
  • Aiming for the complete utilization of sugar-beet pulp: examination of the effects of mild acid and hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion. (jmb.or.kr)
  • metabolism
  • lactis strain Bb 12 were kinetically analyzed in detail using in vitro fermentations to obtain more insight into the metabolism and production of succinic acid by bifidobacteria. (asm.org)
  • Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells, avoiding overflow metabolism, with the concomitant reduction in ethanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, this work demonstrates genetic modifications that can lead to succinic acid production improvements and identifies key flux determinants and new bottlenecks and energetic needs when removing by-product pathways in A. succinogenes metabolism. (asm.org)
  • pure ethanol
  • Approximately 8 to 9 million t, or 4% of US maize grain went into ethanol in A bushel of maize grain (25.3 kg or 56 lb. at 15% moisture) can produce from 9.4 to 10.9 L (2.5 to 2.9 gallons) of pure ethanol, depending on the technology used. (businessdocbox.com)
  • organism
  • Ph.D. research conducted at Oregon State University , supervised by Elaine Ingham , obtained a sample of the genetically modified organism for assessing ecological effects through the German Institut für Biotechnologie and, testing it in non-sterile (ordinary) soil, found that the modified bacteria caused mass plant death from the ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aiming to improve the ethanol tolerance G. thermoglucosidasius NCIMB 11955, the GroES and GroEL genes of the organism were cloned in an expression vector and expressed in E.coli before testing their ability to confer an increased tolerance to ethanol. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Z. mobilis is utilized for the conversion of sugars, particularly xylose, which is not utilized by another common sugar-fermenting organism such as yeast, to ethanol. (wishartlab.com)
  • acids
  • Bacteria produce organic acids that contribute, for good and bad, to the quality of bread. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Controlling acid balance and degree of sourness is something that artisan bakers strive to do, so it may be useful to understand where the acids come from and how their production can be influenced by things that are within the baker's control. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • In yeasted breads, acids come in small doses from naturally occurring bacteria present in flour and commercial yeast. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • ii) Hemicellulose is a composite compound with a mixture of pentoses, hexoses and sugar acids [ 3 - 6 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • gasoline
  • Ethanol has widespread application as an industrial chemical, gasoline additive or straight liquid fuel. (google.com)
  • Ethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel that contains 35% oxygen, which reduces particulate and NOx emissions from combustion. (businessdocbox.com)
  • genes
  • GroES and GroEL genes are involved in stress tolerance in bacteria: activation of these genes has been observed in stress induced bacteria (Rasouly and Ron, 2009). (uwc.ac.za)
  • NZ_AABM00000000) revealed that several genes that encode enzymes that may be involved in the production of succinic acid from carbohydrates, such as PEP carboxylase and fumarate reductase, are present. (asm.org)
  • biocatalysts
  • In addition to the development of pentose-consuming bacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella oxytoca as alternative biocatalysts for ethanol production ( 5 ), this situation has inspired various studies to expand the substrate range of S. cerevisiae . (asm.org)
  • processes
  • If we better understand the assembly line in the metabolic mill that processes all the different sugars, we will be in a better place to implement bioengineering strategies. (phys.org)
  • Current ethanol production technologies using first generation ethanol processes is criticised for depleting the food supply and escalating food prices. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Some of the important aspects for industrial production of probiotics are related to the microorganism itself, the cost of nutrient substrates, and the processes used in their production and recovery are a few important aspects of Lactobacilli in the industrial production of probiotics. (scielo.br)