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  • Human
  • Estrogen has been shown to be important in prostate carcinogenesis, with evidence resulting from epidemiological, cancer cell line, human tissue and animal studies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • steroid
  • Estrogen, a steroid hormone, is a key regulator of growth and differentiation in a broad range of target tissues and, it is also implicated in breast and endometrial cancer and osteoporosis (1). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • endothelial cells
  • Little is known about estrogen receptors and their signaling mechanisms in human cerebral vascular endothelial cells, which is important for understanding cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis in menopausal and postmenopausal women. (hindawi.com)
  • A failure of endothelial cells in the cerebral arterial wall to adequately express estrogen receptors abrogates the possibility of direct interaction between estrogen receptors and circulating estrogen, which can trigger inflammation, upregulation of proteolytic pathways, loss of the arterial wall matrix, and degradation of the arterial wall [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As no biopsy specimens are possibly obtained during surgery because of high risk of bleeding, there is an increasing interest to develop a cellular model to directly investigate the effect of estrogen deficiency and whether it causes a decline in the function and/or number of estrogen receptors, which may promote inflammation and apoptosis in the endothelial cells of cerebral arterial walls. (hindawi.com)
  • Subtypes
  • Subtypes of estrogen receptors and their signaling mechanisms identified in HCVECs could be applicable for developing estrogen-like compounds to specifically bind to a subtype of estrogen receptors with greater specific action on the cerebral arteries, without the estrogen-dependent side effects on the reproductive organs, to prevent cerebral aneurysm formation in menopausal and postmenopausal woman. (hindawi.com)
  • potent
  • ER beta is found widely in many tissues throughout the body and can act as a potent tumor suppressor, playing a crucial role in many cancer types such as prostate cancer, autism spectrum disorder, medullary thyroid carcinoma, De Quervain Disease and risk of cardiovascular disease. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • deficiency
  • ER-beta deficiency in mice was found to be associated with increase in small intestine tumorigenesis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • ER-beta deficiency also leads to increase epithelial proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and accumulation of incompletely differentiated cells in mouse ventral prostrates (5). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • postmenopausal
  • The ER-beta positive TNBC patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy or breast- conserving surgery were randomly (1:1) enrolled to receive toremifene (60 mg per day for premenopausal and perimenopausal patients) /anastrozole(1mg per day for postmenopausal patients) or observation within 4 weeks after adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy if necessary.The follow-up time will be at least five years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In menopausal and postmenopausal women, estrogen level decreased to less than 73 pmol/L due to reductions in its biosynthesis [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)