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  • Premarin
  • Blood clots are also a possible side effect (these problems are seen with ORAL estrogens, including oral contraceptives, rather than Premarin per se). (antiaging.com)
  • Let us only examine the scientific data on the main estrogens in Premarin. (antiaging.com)
  • In keeping with the CyberHealth tradition, let us consider the heretical question: for those women who do not experience side effects, who so often call Premarin "wonderful," could it be a physiologically correct blend of estrogens? (antiaging.com)
  • Or, given the double-edged, good news/bad news nature of hormones, is it nevertheless possible that Premarin offers some unique benefits not provided by other estrogen products? (antiaging.com)
  • quinones
  • Oxidation of catechol estrogens to their quinones normally occurs in homeostasis which minimizes their reaction with DNA. (jcancer.org)
  • The symposium - "Catechol Estrogen Quinones as Initiators of Br. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The symposium - "Catechol Estrogen Quinones as Initiators of Breast and other Human Cancers" - will be led by Drs. Ryszard Jankowiak of the Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, and Ercole Cavalieri of the Eppley Cancer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Estrogens can induce cancer when natural mechanisms of protection do not work properly in our body, and the estrogen quinones are able to react with DNA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • He will describe how the catechol estrogen quinones react with DNA to produce specific mutations that may trigger breast, prostate and other human cancers and show how the results of recent studies give rise to targets for preventing the disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We've known about these catechol estrogen quinones for a long time, through many different studies that we've done, but our most recent results have been quite decisive," said Dr. Eleanor Rogan of the University of Nebraska Medical Center. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Tumor
  • The association with UDT, which has been associated with high gestational estrogen levels ( 2 , 3 ), and the early age at onset of these tumors strongly suggest that tumor-initiating events occur during gestation, possibly by rendering germ cells susceptible to malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, its metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol is a very potent inhibitor of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and this may contribute as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • Catechol O-methyl transferase catalyzes O-methylation of mutagenic flavonoids: Metabolic inactivation as a possible reason for their lack of carcinogenicity in vivo J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • urinary
  • Several studies support evidence that serum and urinary primary estrogens may be useful for screening for adverse pregnancy outcomes, 8 whereas others contend that measurement of these estrogens is of little value. (ahajournals.org)
  • exposure
  • Exposure to relatively high circulating maternal estrogen levels during pregnancy has long been suspected as being a risk factor for TGCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One mechanism by which in utero exposure to estrogens may influence the development of TGCC is via the effects of catechol metabolites of 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone: 4-OH E2, 4-OH estrone, 2-OH E2, and 2-OH estrone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While some studies in the early 1990s claimed a connection between globally declining sperm counts and estrogen exposure in the environment, later studies found no such connection, nor evidence of a general decline in sperm counts. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme aromatase
  • Excessive weight: Obese men transform some of their testosterone into estrogen through the action of the enzyme aromatase , which is amply present in fat cells. (askdrray.com)
  • All of the different forms of estrogen are synthesized from androgens, specifically testosterone and androstenedione, by the enzyme aromatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • The breast tissue is the site of major metabolic conversions of estradiol (E 2 ) mediated by specific cytochromes P450 hydroxylations and methylation by catechol- O -methytransferase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In opposition to other metabolic pathways of estrogen, the UGT-mediated process leads to the formation of glucuronides that are devoid of biologic activity and are readily excreted from the tissue into the circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biomarkers
  • however, whether primary estrogens can be useful biomarkers for maternal and fetal well being in adverse pregnancies, including preeclampsia, has been a subject of controversy. (ahajournals.org)
  • whereas
  • It is not significantly uterotrophic in bioassays, whereas other hydroxylated estrogen metabolites including 2-hydroxyestradiol, 16α-hydroxyestrone, estriol (16α-hydroxyestradiol), 4-hydroxyestradiol, and 4-hydroxyestrone all are. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though estriol is the most plentiful of the three estrogens it is also the weakest, whereas estradiol is the strongest with a potency of approximately 80 times that of estriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, 2-hydroxyestrone reportedly shows negligible uterotrophic effect in animals, whereas 4-hydroxy catechol estrogens show moderate changes in stimulating uterine weight. (wikipedia.org)