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  • powerful bite
  • How would you know Spinosaurus couldn't hunt Paralititan, it could use claws, and it's jaws, it had an exceptionally powerful bite force because of the shape of its head, it had an over sized crocodile jaw. (topix.com)
  • The bladed jaws of predators such as Dunkleosteus suggest that these animals were the first vertebrates to use rapid mouth opening and a powerful bite to capture and fragment evasive prey items prior to ingestion. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • jaws
  • Arms are an extremely good tool in this fight, only jaws is not enough, but the bite force and advanced evolutionary step of T. Rex makes up for this, so its definitely 50/50. (topix.com)
  • In a study published in the September issue of The American Naturalist, A. Kristopher Lappin (Northern Arizona University) and Jerry F. Husak (Oklahoma State University) use the eastern collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris ), a sexually dimorphic lizard in which the jaws of males function as a weapon in fights, to test the hypothesis that weapon performance (i.e., bite force) is a better predictor of fitness than body size and weapon size. (bio-medicine.org)
  • morphology
  • Two studies were done to address the interaction between tooth root morphology, diet and bite force in small mammals. (washington.edu)
  • We quantified morphologies and measured bite force in different rodent species (Muridae), in the wild and in the lab, to better understand the relationship between performance and morphology. (icvm2016.com)
  • We first looked at how bite force and mandible morphology change throughout ontogeny in lab-reared pups of Mus musculus domesticus at different stages from 15 (just after incisor eruption) to 68 days (maturity). (icvm2016.com)
  • IPCC
  • The report's best estimate of direct climate influence by black carbon is about a factor of two higher than most previous work, including the estimates in the last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment released in 2007, which were based on the best available evidence and analysis at that time. (sott.net)
  • Scientists have spent the years since the last IPCC assessment improving estimates, but the new assessment notes that emissions in some regions are probably higher than estimated. (sott.net)
  • I was unable to get the Hansen et al 1988 expressions for CH4 and N2O forcing to yield sensible results and for these two gases, I used the expression in IPCC 1990 to convert GHG concentration to radiative forcing. (climateaudit.org)
  • I spent a fair bit of time on this before abandoning the effort and going with the IPCC 1990 expressions. (climateaudit.org)
  • muscles
  • The researchers then took what they knew about crocodile jaw muscles and bite forces, and used that information to create detailed 3-D computer models that could reveal T. rex's chomping potential. (wuwm.com)
  • Using that information, they came up with an idea of how the jaw muscles in the T. rex were arranged, then calculated the bite force. (nytimes.com)
  • specimen
  • The most complete specimen measures up to 12.3 m (40 ft) in length, up to 3.66 meters (12 ft) tall at the hips, and according to most modern estimates 8.4 metric tons (9.3 short tons) to 14 metric tons (15.4 short tons) in weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, relative to other members of the superfamily Hominoidea, humans can achieve relatively high bite forces, while overall stresses are reduced. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • thus, even though CO2 growth is (modestly) exponential in Scenario B, the composite of the exponential increase in GHC concentration and a logarithmic expression relating CO2 concentration to forcing yields linear growth in forcing. (climateaudit.org)
  • Thus the exponential growth in CFC concentration in Scenario A (and the CFC growth rate is hypothesized to be much stronger than for CO2), combined with a linear relationship leads to an exponential growth in total forcing - driven primarily by CFCs. (climateaudit.org)
  • tooth
  • In contrast, no strong relationship was found between estimated bite force and tooth root surface area in rodents. (washington.edu)
  • The researchers also found that the tips of each T. rex tooth generated a pressure of about 431,000 pounds per square inch, which is higher than any animal ever estimated. (nytimes.com)
  • consistent
  • This is consistent with other research that also hinted at significant under-estimates in some regions' black carbon emissions. (sott.net)
  • animals
  • They weren't really based or grounded in the modern world by comparison with some living animals for which we knew the bite force. (wuwm.com)
  • This is not a change in diet hardness per se, but it was assumed that the animals could not bite with normal force. (washington.edu)
  • This bite force capability is the greatest of all living or fossil fishes and is among the most powerful bites in animals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • But those studies either did not use a model that had been tested on live animals or made estimates that simply extrapolated what a crocodile bite would do if delivered by a large dinosaur's body. (nytimes.com)
  • approach
  • To test the accuracy of predictions allowed by the proxies, we combined linear regressions with a leave-one-out approach, estimating an individual's bite force based on the rest of the dataset. (biologists.org)
  • power
  • The bit body may be machined from solid metal, usually steel, or may be molded using a powder metallurgy process in which tungsten carbide power is infiltrated with a metal alloy binder in a furnace so as to form a hard matrix. (google.com)
  • The success of Chris Monico and his team of mathematicians from Notre Dame in solving the Certicom ECCp-109 challenge was achieved using raw computing power to brute force the key. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Certicom is offering $20,000 in prize money for the solution to the next challenge, which involves solving a 131-bit key that is expected to require several thousand times more computing power than the ECCp-109 Challenge. (theregister.co.uk)
  • nutrients
  • If you could bite through bone, you can get nutrients from within the bone itself," said Paul M. Gignac , a paleobiologist at Oklahoma State University and the lead author on the paper. (nytimes.com)
  • shape
  • A method of determining characteristics of a rotary drag-type drill bit comprises the steps of: creating a computerized representation of the cutters on the drill bit, and then, with each cutter in turn, projecting the shape of the cutter onto a fixed plane having an array of cells, and assigning a first marker to those cells of the array which overlie the projection of the selected cutter. (google.com)
  • The cutters on the drill bit have cutting edges which, together, define an overall cutting profile which defines the surface shape of the bottom of the borehole which the bit drills. (google.com)
  • found
  • To figure out the bite force of a long-extinct T. rex, the team created a digital T. rex jaw based off muscle features found on close modern-day relatives to dinosaurs, like birds and crocodilians. (nytimes.com)
  • data
  • These factors have a determinate effect on mechanical performance [ 5 - 8 ] and such a model would provide reasonable estimates of the quantitative data required to test hypotheses regarding bite performance, facilitating meaningful comparisons between T. rex and other taxa, both living and extinct. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • firms
  • Certicom's higher strength 163-bit encryption toolkits are used by many firms in the IT industry including Cisco, Motorola and Palm. (theregister.co.uk)
  • results
  • Without an illustration of the allocation of forcing by GHG, an innocent reader of this article could easily assume that the doubling was a simple and reasonable way to deal with a minor effect and immaterial to the results. (climateaudit.org)
  • come
  • Hansen et al 1988 said that "resource limitations" ultimately checked the expansion of Scenario A. While this is true for CO2, I'm a bit dubous that resource limitations come into play in connection with CFC emissions. (climateaudit.org)
  • studies
  • Some studies contend that a modest bite limited T. rex to scavenging [ 3 ], while others have argued that high 'bone-crushing bite' forces facilitated a 'puncture-pull' mode of predation [ 1 , 2 , 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • highest
  • T. rex was basically eclipsing the highest forces known for any living animal today," says Erickson. (wuwm.com)