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  • Microbiology
  • E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its long history of laboratory culture and ease of manipulation, E. coli also plays an important role in modern biological engineering and industrial microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The E. coli is one of the most common bacteria , and can be found abundantly in the human intestine (about 0.1% of all the bacteria in the intestine, based on Western diet ). (everything2.com)
  • Although an important dweller of our alimentary canal E. Coli only makes up 0.1% of the bacteria that lines an adult intestine . (everything2.com)
  • What makes E. coli so resistant is that, like most bacteria roughly one out of every 10 million E. coli in a petri dish might randomly mutate to be resistant to, say penicillin . (everything2.com)
  • Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. (springer.com)
  • Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic elements harboring virulence genes. (springer.com)
  • Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most serotypes of E. coli-a widespread species of bacteria residing in the lower intestines of mammals-are beneficial or do not cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria whose infection causes a syndrome that is identical to shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia coli O104:H21 is a rare serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spread of E. coli is prevented simply by thorough hand-washing with soap, washing and hygienically preparing food, and properly heating/cooking food, so the bacteria are destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1885, Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician, first discovered this species in the feces of healthy individuals and called it Bacterium coli commune because it is found in the colon and early classifications of Prokaryotes placed these in a handful of genera based on their shape and motility (at that time Ernst Haeckel's classification of Bacteria in the kingdom Monera was in place). (wikipedia.org)
  • Following a revision of Bacteria it was reclassified as Bacillus coli by Migula in 1895 and later reclassified as Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, bacteria were considered primitive and pre-cellular and received little attention before 1944, when Avery, Macleod and McCarty demonstrated that DNA was the genetic material using Salmonella typhimurium, following which Escherichia coli was used for linkage mapping studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gibson also studied the growth of cyanobacteria, co-authoring a paper that demonstrated the close evolutionary relationship that many gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli have with purple photosynthetic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • EAEC
  • In particular, EAEC are reported as the second most common cause of traveler's diarrhea, second only to Enterotoxigenic E. coli, and a common cause of diarrhea amongst pediatric populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • ETEC
  • Because of its high infectious dose, analysis for ETEC is usually not performed unless high levels of E. coli have been found in a food. (fda.gov)
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) produces a toxin that acts on the intestinal lining, and is the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • coliform
  • also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical genera include: Citrobacter Enterobacter Hafnia Klebsiella Escherichia Escherichia coli (E. coli), a rod-shaped member of the coliforms group, can be distinguished from most other coliforms by its ability to ferment lactose at 44°C in the fecal coliform test, and by its growth and color reaction on certain types of culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia coli have an incubation period of 12-72 hours with the optimal growth temperature being 30-37°C. Unlike the general coliform group, E. coli are almost exclusively of fecal origin and their presence is thus an effective confirmation of fecal contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mixed Acid Ferment
  • E. coli can live on a wide variety of substrates and uses mixed-acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate, succinate, ethanol, acetate, and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Esre sRNA, for "essential small RNA in E. coli", is located in 3′ moiety of yigP gene (also known as ubiJ), which is involved in coenzyme Q8 biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Escherichia coli contains a number of small RNAs located in intergenic regions of its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The homepage of MicrobesOnline is the portal for accessing its functions, which includes six main sections: the top navigation elements, a genome selector, examples of the tutorial based on E.coli K-12, a link to the Genome-Linked Application for Metabolic Maps (GLAMM), website highlights and the "about MicrobesOnline" list. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Referred to as Diarrheagenic E. coli ( 28 ) or commonly as pathogenic E. coli , these groups are classified based on their unique virulence factors and can only be identified by these traits. (fda.gov)
  • isolates
  • Hence, analysis for pathogenic E. coli often requires that the isolates be first identified as E. coli before testing for virulence markers. (fda.gov)
  • There are several variants of ST, of which ST1a or STp is found in E. coli isolated from both humans and animals, while ST1b or STh is predominant in human isolates only. (fda.gov)
  • antibiotics
  • The outer membrane surrounding the cell wall provides a barrier to certain antibiotics such that E. coli is not damaged by penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • anaerobic
  • E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic (that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent) and nonsporulating bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • The work of Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer in E. coli, using plasmids and restriction enzymes to create recombinant DNA, became a foundation of biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)