• The ergot alkaloids (EAs) are mycotoxins produced by several species of fungi in the genus Claviceps . (europa.eu)
  • Naturally occurring alkaloids like the D- lysergic acid amides, produced by the "ergot fungus" Claviceps purpurea , have been used as medicinal agents for a long time. (springer.com)
  • Ergot alkaloids are toxins produced by members of the fungal family of Clavicipitaceae represented among others by Claviceps purpurea, C. paspali, and C. fusiformis, occurring predominantly on rye, wheat and barley, but also on rice, maize and sorghum, oats and millet. (wur.nl)
  • Until the late 20th century, human and livestock exposure to ergot alkaloids was primarily through ingestion of "ergots," which are spur-shaped or seed-like resting structures (sclerotia) of ergot fungi, the Claviceps species. (mdpi.com)
  • Biology, Genetics, and Management of Ergot ( Claviceps spp. (mdpi.com)
  • Several genes required for ergot alkaloid production are known in the clavicipitaceous fungi, and these genes are clustered in the genome of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea . (asm.org)
  • Several fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae (order Hypocreales ), including the ergot fungi in the genus Claviceps and certain grass endophytes in the genera Epichloë (including their imperfect relatives in the genus Neotyphodium ) and Balansia , produce ergot alkaloids in association with their grass hosts ( 3 , 6 , 7 , 14 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Festuclavine, one of the ergot alkaloids produced by A. fumigatus , was first described from Claviceps purpurea ( 6 , 7 ) and also has been detected in Neotyphodium spp. (asm.org)
  • A genomic clone of cloA from Claviceps africana , a sorghum ergot fungus that produces a DHLA derivative, was cloned and expressed in the festuclavine-accumulating mutant of N. fumigata , but several introns in this genomic clone were not processed properly. (asm.org)
  • the others, Claviceps sorghicola and Claviceps sorghi , are not known to produce ergot alkaloids. (asm.org)
  • ergot (Claviceps purpurea). (tripsit.me)
  • Bu'Lock, J. D., Barr, J. G.:A regulation mechanism linking tryptophan uptake and synthesis with ergot alkaloid synthesis in Claviceps. (naver.com)
  • Saprophytic production of ergot alkaloids by Bajra ergot (Claviceps fusiformis Loveless). (bvsalud.org)
  • In this first episode of a miniseries on ergot alkaloids, Josh uncovers the enemy lurking underfoot: Claviceps purpurea molds and the sclerotia that hide them. (romerlabs.com)
  • DIHYDROERGOTAMINE (dye hye droe er GOT a meen) is part of a group of medicines called ergot alkaloids. (cvs.com)
  • The pharmacological effects of the various ergot alkaloids and their derivatives are due to the structural similarity of the tetracyclic ring system to neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. (springer.com)
  • Erowid.org: Erowid Reference 1486 : Influence of ergot alkaloids and lysergic acid derivatives on an inherited behavior anomaly in mice. (erowid.org)
  • Many ergot alkaloids are derivatives of lysergic acid (LA) and have vasoconstrictive activity, whereas several dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA) derivatives are vasorelaxant. (asm.org)
  • Many natural ergot alkaloids are derivatives of lysergic acid (LA) and have vasoconstrictive activity. (asm.org)
  • Derivatives of dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA), which are rarely encountered naturally, are the basis for many of the commonly prescribed vasorelaxant ergot-alkaloid-derived pharmaceuticals ( 5 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • LA and its derivatives differ from dihydroergot alkaloids by the presence of a double bond in the fourth (last assembled) or "D" ring of the ergoline nucleus ( Fig. 1 ) and can be converted to their dihydro forms by reduction of that double bond. (asm.org)
  • This is an entirely new class of ergot alkaloid derivatives. (cas.cz)
  • Indole alkaloids of the fumitremorgin-type contain tryprostatins, cyclotryprostatins, spirotryprostatins, fumitremorgins and verruculogen as well as derivatives thereof. (nature.com)
  • Simple fumitremorgin-type alkaloids with one prenyl moiety at position C2 are tryprostatins ( 2 and 3 ) or derivatives thereof. (nature.com)
  • Ergot derivatives: restricted use" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, FgaMT represents the second pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids. (nih.gov)
  • Much is known about the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids that are derived from lysergic acid (LA), but important questions remain about a parallel pathway to ergot alkaloids derived from dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA). (asm.org)
  • The tryptophan-histidine cross-pathway probably serves a useful function inthe biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids. (naver.com)
  • Medium composition, cultivation temperature, and pO₂ had a regulatory effect on production of ergot alkaloids (EA) and quinocitrinines (QC) by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum VKM F-4043 D. Maximal accumulation of EA and QC occurred at 24 and 28°C, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • The present study deals with the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum, using surface culture fermentation process. (bvsalud.org)
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  • Ergot alkaloid-producing members of the Clavicipitaceae (clavicipitaceous fungi) produce a wide variety of clavine and lysergyl-derived ergot alkaloids but commonly accumulate ergopeptines (nonribosomally synthesized peptides containing lysergic acid and three amino acids) or simple amides of lysergic acid, such as ergine and ergonovine ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Oellig (2017) reported a screening method using lysergic acid amide (LSA) as a chemical marker for the determination of total ergot alkaloids in rye. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and found in the seeds of Turbina corymbosa (ololiuhqui), Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian baby woodrose), and Ipomoea tricolor (morning glories, tlitliltzin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysergic acid received its name as it was a product of the lysis of various ergot alkaloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The profile of ergot alkaloids observed within a fungus also is affected by a delayed flux of intermediates through the pathway, which results in an accumulation of intermediates or early pathway byproducts to concentrations comparable to that of the pathway end product. (mdpi.com)
  • The Fungus Penicillium citrinum, Isolated from Permafrost Sediments, as a Producer of Ergot Alkaloids and New Quinoline Alkaloids Quinocitrinines. (ebscohost.com)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus , a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, and several fungi in the relatively distant taxon Clavicipitaceae (clavicipitaceous fungi) produce different sets of ergot alkaloids. (asm.org)
  • The rather distantly related imperfect fungus Aspergillus fumigatus , a common saprophyte and opportunistic human pathogen with close relatives in the order Eurotiales , produces ergot alkaloids in broth culture ( 4 , 23 ) and in association with its airborne conidia ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Dihydroergosine is the most complex and abundant dihydroergot alkaloid produced by C. africana , but pathway intermediates festuclavine and dihydroelymoclavine (synonym dihydrolysergol) also accumulate in sorghum infected by this fungus ( 11 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • One hundred patients suffering from sustained arterial hypertension were studied over a period of two years during which time the action of parenterally administered hydrogenated ergot alkaloids (Hydergine) constituted the main drug therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the years since this massive fatality, other important mycotoxins including ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, and zearalenone have been discovered and described, many the result of other devastating intoxications. (apsnet.org)
  • Fungi derived from two relatively divergent ascomycete orders ( Hypocreales and Eurotiales ) produce ergot alkaloids. (asm.org)
  • The ergot alkaloids are a family of indole-derived mycotoxins with a variety of significant biological activities. (asm.org)
  • The ergot alkaloids are a complex family of indole-derived mycotoxins with varied and significant biological activities ( 6 , 7 , 14 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between plant mass and endophyte mycelial proteins versus ergot alkaloid concentration. (springer.com)
  • 1997. Endophyte mycelial protein and herbage mass effects on ergot alkaloid concentration in tall fescue. (springer.com)
  • Discusses endophyte-infected tall fescue, the main forage grass in Virginia, and the importance of careful management of this forage, and monitoring for toxic alkaloids produced the fescue's fungal endophyte. (vt.edu)
  • Ergot alkaloids, which are produced by endophyte fungi, can enhance plant host fitness, but also cause livestock toxicosis to host plants (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Alkaloids produced by the Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte in association with tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) are imputed to cause peripheral symptoms of fescue toxicosis. (usda.gov)
  • [7] However, results of feeding tests with grass extracts are occasionally difficult to interpret due to the presence of other endophyte alkaloids in these extracts, [1] and the exact mechanisms of the insecticidal actions of the lolines are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • This distribution of alkaloids is consistent with the hypothesis that early steps of the ergot alkaloid pathways are shared by these diverse fungal species but the later portions of the pathways are different in A. fumigatus and the clavicipitaceous fungi. (asm.org)
  • Ergot alkaloids are specialized fungal metabolites that are important as the bases of several pharmaceuticals. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Ergot alkaloids are fungal metabolites that have impacted humankind historically as poisons and more recently as pharmaceuticals used to treat dementia, migraines, and other disorders. (asm.org)
  • Ergot alkaloids are specialized fungal metabolites that have impacted humankind historically as toxins and more recently as pharmaceuticals used to treat dementia, migraines, hyperprolactinemia, and Parkinson's disease ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The ergot alkaloids are a diverse class of fungal-derived indole alkaloid natural products with potent pharmacological activities. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The ergot alkaloids, compounds with partial agonist activity at serotonin and several other receptors, are discussed at the end of the chapter. (mhmedical.com)
  • alsatian clark forces her to be stunned and to ergot alkaloid biosynthesis of serotonin prattle abiogenically! (tv-commu.info)
  • spoony redford shirk, his dey nestle birks with ergot alkaloid biosynthesis of serotonin rejoicing. (tv-commu.info)
  • 2] Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the exocyclic position (mescaline, serotonin, dopamine, etc.) are usually attributed to amines rather than alkaloids. (scribd.com)
  • The ergot alkaloids are a heterogeneous group of drugs (not autacoids) that interact with serotonin receptors, dopamine receptors, and α receptors. (mhmedical.com)
  • A. fumigatus produces several clavine ergot alkaloids, including festuclavine and fumigaclavines A, B, and C ( 4 , 13 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Most of the clavine and lysergyl-derived ergot alkaloids contain the same four-member ergoline ring system, but they differ in the number, type, and position of the side chains ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Most strains of the subgenus Furcatum produce clavine ergot alkaloids and metabolites of diketopiperazine nature. (usda.gov)
  • A series of dimers of antiparkinsonic ergot alkaloids (terguride, pergolide) and of a clavine (pyroclavine) was prepared and fully spectrally characterized. (cas.cz)
  • The recent identification of a cluster of genes involved in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in C. purpurea and the availability of molecular genetic techniques allow the development of strategies for rational drug design of ergoline-related drugs by enzyme engineering and by biocombinatorial approaches. (springer.com)
  • The ergot alkaloids of these divergent fungi share a four-member ergoline ring but differ in the number, type, and position of the side chains. (asm.org)
  • with low alkaloid concentration may select for tall fescue plants that are antagonistic towards Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin, comb. (springer.com)
  • Hiatt E.E., Hill N.S. (1997) Neotyphodium Coenophialum Mycelial Protein and Herbage Mass Effects on Ergot Alkaloid Concentration in Tall Fescue. (springer.com)
  • Tall fescue produces a toxic alkaloid that causes disorders in broodmares that consume the forage. (thehorse.com)
  • Tropane alkaloids (TA) are secondary metabolites occurring in several plant families, including Solanaceae. (europa.eu)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to ergoloid mesylates, other ergot alkaloids (Cafergot, Ergostat, Bellergal), or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ergoloid mesylates (USAN), co-dergocrine mesilate (BAN) or dihydroergotoxine mesylate, trade name Hydergine, is a mixture of the methanesulfonate salts of three dihydrogenated ergot alkaloids (dihydroergocristine, dihydroergocornine, and alpha- and beta-dihydroergocryptine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ergoloid Mesylate Tablets USP for sublingual use contain 1 mg of Ergoloid Mesylates USP, a mixture of the methanesulfonate salt of the following hydrogenated alkaloids: Dihydroergocornine mesylate 0.333 mg, Dihydroergocristine mesylate 0.333 mg, Dihydroergocryptine mesylate 0.333 mg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ergot alkaloids dihydroergotaminemesilate, dihydroergotamintartrate, ergometrine hydrogenmaleate, and ergotamine tartrate have a variety of uses in medicine, including as treatments for labor contractions and migraines. (tripsit.me)
  • Here we show that while the Old Yellow Enzyme homolog EasA from the ergot biosynthetic gene cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus acts on chanoclavine-I aldehyde 1 to yield festuclavine 2, EasA from Neotyphodium lolii, in contrast, produces agroclavine 3. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Finally, the stability of the ergot alkaloids in both raw cereals and cereal-based processed food extracts was studied. (dtu.dk)
  • Quinocitrinines and ergot alkaloids were synthesized by the strain Penicillium citrinum VKM FW-800 as the culture grews. (ebscohost.com)
  • All ergot alkaloid producers share early steps before their pathways diverge to produce different end products. (mdpi.com)
  • Ergot alkaloids festuclavine 2 and agroclavine 3 derive from alternate enzymatic pathways originating from the common biosynthetic precursor chanoclavine-I aldehyde 1. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Randox Ergot Alkaloids ELISA results show an excellent 95% correlation with the assigned concentration within FAPAS Proficiency Test scheme. (randoxfood.com)
  • A certain concentration of cell-pool tryptophan is needed to promote alkaloid synthesis. (naver.com)
  • This paper describes a new and rapid method for accurate quantification of the six ergot alkaloids, ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, and ergocornine, by liquid chromatographyâ€"tandem mass spectrometry (LCâ€"MSâ€"MS). The six ergot alkaloids studied have been defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as among the most common and physiologically active ones. (ebscohost.com)
  • Results obtained from a purity study on standards of the 6 major ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, and ergocornine and their corresponding epimers are discussed. (dtu.dk)
  • Several fungi in two different families--the Clavicipitaceae and the Trichocomaceae--produce different profiles of ergot alkaloids, many of which are important in agriculture and medicine. (mdpi.com)
  • Alkaloids can be toxic too (e.g. atropine, tubocurarine). (scribd.com)
  • Extracts from plants containing toxic alkaloids, such as aconitine and tubocurarine, were used since antiquity for poisoning arrows. (scribd.com)
  • These results indicate that ergot alkaloids have potential to alter blood supply and drainage from the bovine foregut and the differential artery and vein responses may contribute to the fescue toxicosis syndrome. (usda.gov)
  • A homolog of dmaW , the gene controlling the determinant step in the ergot alkaloid pathway of clavicipitaceous fungi, was identified in the A. fumigatus genome. (asm.org)
  • Knockout of dmaW eliminated all known ergot alkaloids from A. fumigatus , and complementation of the mutation restored ergot alkaloid production. (asm.org)
  • Clustered with dmaW in the A. fumigatus genome are sequences corresponding to five genes previously proposed to encode steps in the ergot alkaloid pathway of C. purpurea , as well as additional sequences whose deduced protein products are consistent with their involvement in the ergot alkaloid pathway. (asm.org)
  • 1) The hydrogenated alkaloids of ergot, i.e., dihydroergocornine (DHO 180), dihydroergocristine (DCS 90), and dihydroergokryptine (DHK 135) act centrally by lowering the tone of the vascular system and peripherally by adrenergic blockade. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article presents information on ergot preparation ergot alkaloids for treating excessive post-delivery bleeding, including its dosage, adverse reactions, side effects, precautions when administering, and possible interaction with other drugs and substances. (ebscohost.com)
  • Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine),[11] and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. (scribd.com)
  • Included in this industry are establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing agar-agar and similar products of natural origin, endocrine products, manufacturing or isolating basic vitamins, and isolating active medicinal principals such as alkaloids from botanical drugs and herbs. (naics.com)
  • Treats confusion, dizziness, and depressed mood.Belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. (umm.edu)
  • Consult your doctor for specific advice if you are taking any of the following drugs that may interact with bromocriptine: blood pressure medication, an oral contraceptive, erythromycin, a phenothiazine, an MAO inhibitor, progestin, levodopa, or a rauwolfia alkaloid. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • The degradation and epimerization of ergot alkaloids (EAs) in rye flour were investigated after baking cookies and subsequently subjecting them to an in vitro digestion model. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Accurately detects the sum of 12 main ergot alkaloids to test the most affected type of cereal - rye flour. (randoxfood.com)
  • Functions of three genes involved in the ergot alkaloid pathway have been demonstrated by gene knockout. (asm.org)
  • The ergot alkaloid pathway is relatively long and may have alternate branches or spurs in some ergot alkaloid producers ( 7 , 8 , 14 , 15 ). (asm.org)