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  • knockout mice
  • For example, ErbB-2 and erbB-4 knockout mice die at midgestation leads to deficient cardiac function associated with a lack of myocardial ventricular trabeculation and display abnormal development of the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • A proline-tyrosine (PY) motif presents at its linker region enables its interaction with the WW domains of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, the Smad ubiquitination-related factors (Smurf2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterium Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastric cancer, and this is thought to be mediated in part by the interaction of its virulence factor CagA with SHP2. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • The process is mediated by an assortment of hormones (and growth factors), the most important of which include estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth hormone (GH), which is secreted from the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is produced in the body in response to GH, are growth-mediating hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen receptor
  • It has been found that patients with ER+ (Estrogen receptor positive)/HER2+ compared with ER-/HER2+ breast cancers may actually benefit more from drugs that inhibit the PI3K/AKT molecular pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • GW2016 treatment inhibited tumor xenograft growth of the HN5 and BT474 cells in a dose-responsive manner at 30 and 100 mg/kg orally, twice daily, with complete inhibition of tumor growth at the higher dose. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treatment of cell lines with GW2016 results in potent inhibition of tumor cell growth, increased tumor cell death, and selectivity for growth inhibition of tumor cell lines versus normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and to physical, chemical and bacterial agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Clustering of receptors is an important regulatory mechanism to prime cells to respond to stimuli so, to understand these processes, it is necessary to measure parameters such as numbers of clusters, cluster radii and the number of localizations per cluster for different perturbations. (bio-protocol.org)